How to format your references using the Smart Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falk, M. L. (2007). Materials science. The flow of glass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5858), 1880–1881.
A journal article with 2 authors
di Bernardo, D., & Murray, A. (2000). Explaining the T-wave shape in the ECG. Nature, 403(6765), 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Dyck, D., Jinschek, J. R., & Chen, F.-R. (2012). “Big Bang” tomography as a new route to atomic-resolution electron tomography. Nature, 486(7402), 243–246.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kuroha, T., Nagai, K., Gamuyao, R., Wang, D. R., Furuta, T., Nakamori, M., Kitaoka, T., Adachi, K., Minami, A., Mori, Y., Mashiguchi, K., Seto, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Kojima, M., Sakakibara, H., Wu, J., Ebana, K., Mitsuda, N., Ohme-Takagi, M., … Ashikari, M. (2018). Ethylene-gibberellin signaling underlies adaptation of rice to periodic flooding. Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6398), 181–186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Memming, R. (2015). Semiconductor Electrochemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Czichos, H. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook of Technical Diagnostics: Fundamentals and Application to Structures and Systems. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, R. C. (2014). Novel Biomarkers for Cholangiocarcinoma. In J. M. Herman, T. M. Pawlik, & C. R. Thomas Jr. (Eds.), Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach (pp. 67–82). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 19). Mathematics, Spaghetti Alla Carbonara And You. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Aircraft Certification: New FAA Approach Needed to Meet Challenges of Advanced Technology (RCED-93-155). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, K. (2015). Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, January 9). Eight Teams That Will Try Their Best. How Novel. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Falk, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (di Bernardo & Murray, 2000; Falk, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (di Bernardo & Murray, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Van Dyck et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kuroha et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Health
AbbreviationSmart Health
ISSN (print)2352-6483

Other styles