How to format your references using the Smart Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, R. (2000). HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5490), 250–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Izquierdo, I., & Cammarota, M. (2004). Neuroscience. Zif and the survival of memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 829–830.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, A. H., Allen, J. I., & Clark, P. A. (2002). Extraction of a weak climatic signal by an ecosystem. Nature, 416(6881), 629–632.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bitterman, Y., Mukamel, R., Malach, R., Fried, I., & Nelken, I. (2008). Ultra-fine frequency tuning revealed in single neurons of human auditory cortex. Nature, 451(7175), 197–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky, S. M. (2006). The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Holder, R. D., & Mitton, S. (Eds.). (2012). Georges Lemaître: Life, Science and Legacy (Vol. 395). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aboul-Hosn, K. (2006). An Axiomatization of Arrays for Kleene Algebra with Tests. In R. A. Schmidt (Ed.), Relations and Kleene Algebra in Computer Science: 9th International Conference on Relational Methods in Computer Science and 4th International Workshop on Applications of Kleene Algebra, RelMiCS/AKA 2006, Manchester, UK, August 29–September 2, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 63–77). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, August 22). Increasing Antibiotic Efficacy With Silver. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). School Dropouts: The Extent and Nature of the Problem (HRD-86-106BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bible, P. W. (2013). Integrating Heterogeneous Datasets for Functional Profiling of Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2016, September 27). Sciencetake: Misguided Leaders Don’t Lead Pigeons Off Course. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Izquierdo & Cammarota, 2004; Stone, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Izquierdo & Cammarota, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Taylor et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bitterman et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Health
AbbreviationSmart Health
ISSN (print)2352-6483

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