How to format your references using the Smart Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2003). Threat of closure hangs heavy over primate centre. Nature, 423(6939), 471.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito, T., & Okazaki, S. (2000). Pushing the limits of lithography. Nature, 406(6799), 1027–1031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gung, Y., Panning, M., & Romanowicz, B. (2003). Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents. Nature, 422(6933), 707–711.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arca, F., Tedde, S. F., Sramek, M., Rauh, J., Lugli, P., & Hayden, O. (2013). Interface trap states in organic photodiodes. Scientific Reports, 3, 1324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koch, S. N., Torres, S. M. F., & Plumb, D. C. (2012). Canine and Feline Dermatology Drug Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
O’Campo, P., & Dunn, J. R. (Eds.). (2012). Rethinking Social Epidemiology: Towards a Science of Change. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
da Costa, A. C., Rebelo, F., & Teles, J. (2016). Child-Persona: What I Think to What They Are. In F. Rebelo & M. Soares (Eds.), Advances in Ergonomics in Design: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Ergonomics in Design, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA (pp. 43–51). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Health.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 19). According To A Nasa Funded Study, We’re Pretty Much Screwed. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Space Communications: Better Understanding of Scheduling System Limitations Needed (IMTEC-91-48). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garfield-Kabbara, J. N. (2014). Through the Portal of Shame: A Path Toward Self-Love for Fatherless Daughters Living in Patriarchy [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Yaccino, S. (2013, June 18). In Embattled Detroit, No Talk of Sharing Pain Between Retirees and Bondholders. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton, 2003; Ito & Okazaki, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ito & Okazaki, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Gung et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Arca et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Health
AbbreviationSmart Health
ISSN (print)2352-6483

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