How to format your references using the Smart Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mogi, K. (2013). Cognitive factors correlating with the metacognition of the phenomenal properties of experience. Scientific Reports, 3, 3354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pascual-Leone, A., & Walsh, V. (2001). Fast backprojections from the motion to the primary visual area necessary for visual awareness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5516), 510–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shapiro, L., McAdams, H. H., & Losick, R. (2002). Generating and exploiting polarity in bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 1942–1946.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mkhoyan, K. A., Batson, P. E., Cha, J., Schaff, W. J., & Silcox, J. (2006). Direct determination of local lattice polarity in crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5778), 1354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lahdenmäki, T., & Leach, M. (2005). Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Volz, S. (Ed.). (2009). Thermal Nanosystems and Nanomaterials (Vol. 118). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Croft, H. (2016). Rethinking Civilian Neuroses in the Second World War. In P. Leese & J. Crouthamel (Eds.), Traumatic Memories of the Second World War and After (pp. 95–116). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Health.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, August 4). Private Company Given Permission To Land On The Moon For The First Time Ever. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Early Decisions and Delays on the Zilwaukee, Michigan, Bridge Project (RCED-83-165). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coggin, L. L. (2014). Creating discourses of possibility: Storying between the real and the imagined to negotiate rural lives in two elementary classrooms [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, February 5). Hillary Clinton Visits Capitol In Vivid Display of Her Clout. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mogi, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mogi, 2013; Pascual-Leone & Walsh, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pascual-Leone & Walsh, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Shapiro et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mkhoyan et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Health
AbbreviationSmart Health
ISSN (print)2352-6483

Other styles