How to format your references using the Smart Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Smart Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smol, J. P. (2012). Climate Change: A planet in flux. Nature, 483(7387), S12-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Embley, T. M., & Martin, W. (2006). Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature, 440(7084), 623–630.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, T., Sibbett, W., & Wright, E. M. (2001). Laser physics. Getting to grips with light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5533), 1265–1267.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goes, J. I., Thoppil, P. G., Gomes, H. do R., & Fasullo, J. T. (2005). Warming of the Eurasian landmass is making the Arabian Sea more productive. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5721), 545–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Demand, N. H. (2011). The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Yang, X.-S., & Koziel, S. (Eds.). (2011). Computational Optimization and Applications in Engineering and Industry (Vol. 359). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pearce, E. J. (2016). Th2 Cell Responses in Immunity and Inflammation Following Helminth Infection. In W. C. Gause & D. Artis (Eds.), The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease: From Host Defense and Allergy to Metabolic Homeostasis and Beyond (pp. 53–72). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Smart Health.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 8). Dark Matter May Have Punched Huge Holes In A Stream Of Stars. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Transportation and Telecommunications Reports and Testimony: May 1992 - April 1993 (No. RCED-93-187). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chalmers, T. D. (2009). The social context of advertising: Authenticity, social identity, and reflected appraisals (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chivers, C. J., & SOPHIA KISHKOVSKY; Erin Arvedlund contributed reporting from Moscow for this article. (2004, July 10). U.S. Investigative Journalist Is Shot to Death in Russia. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smol, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Embley & Martin, 2006; Smol, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Embley & Martin, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Brown, Sibbett, & Wright, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Goes, Thoppil, Gomes, & Fasullo, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmart Health
AbbreviationSmart Health
ISSN (print)2352-6483

Other styles