How to format your references using the Triple Helix citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Triple Helix. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giomataris I (2010) Georges Charpak (1924-2010). Nature 467:1048
A journal article with 2 authors
Pardo M, Nurse P (2003) Equatorial retention of the contractile actin ring by microtubules during cytokinesis. Science 300:1569–1574
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajan R, Clement JP, Bhalla US (2006) Rats smell in stereo. Science 311:666–670
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ha E-M, Oh C-T, Bae YS, Lee W-J (2005) A direct role for dual oxidase in Drosophila gut immunity. Science 310:847–850

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mansour M, Wilhite R, Rowe J (2017) Guide to Ruminant Anatomy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Khan NA (ed) (2006) Ethylene Action in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Beitsch PD (2016) Surgical Considerations in Partial-Breast Irradiation. In: Arthur DW, Vicini FA, Wazer DE, Khan AJ (eds) Short Course Breast Radiotherapy: A Comprehensive Review of Hypofractionation, Partial Breast, and Intra-Operative Irradiation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 77–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Triple Helix.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) 7-Year-Old Girl’s Awesome Letter To Google CEO Elicits Response “Keep Following Your Dreams.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Cost-Benefit Analysis Used in Support of the Space Shuttle Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grizzel RE (2010) Three choral works by Dr. James Mobberley—the analysis rehearsal, and performance of “Poem to Ease Birth”, “Lullaby”, and “Spring: O Sparrow.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) Weather Doesn’t Dampen Latest Heart-Stopper in the Bronx. New York Times SP3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giomataris 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Pardo and Nurse 2003; Giomataris 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pardo and Nurse 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ha et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTriple Helix
AbbreviationTriple Helix (Heidelb.)
ISSN (online)2197-1927

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