How to format your references using the Triple Helix citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Triple Helix. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charron DJ (2009) Obituary: Jean Dausset (1916-2009). Nature 460:338
A journal article with 2 authors
Codelli JA, Reisman SE (2013) Chemistry. Pactamycin made easy. Science 340:152–153
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma J, Wollmann R, Lindquist S (2002) Neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration when PrP accumulates in the cytosol. Science 298:1781–1785
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kizhatil K, Baker SA, Arshavsky VY, Bennett V (2009) Ankyrin-G promotes cyclic nucleotide-gated channel transport to rod photoreceptor sensory cilia. Science 323:1614–1617

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Bagotsky V, M. Skundin A, M. Volfkovich Y (2014) Electrochemical Power Sources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mukhopadhyay SC, Lay-Ekuakille A (eds) (2010) Advances in Biomedical Sensing, Measurements, Instrumentation and Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chen J, Zhou B (2008) TGC-Tree: An Online Algorithm Tracing Closed Itemset and Transaction Set Simultaneously. In: Tokunaga T, Ortega A (eds) Large-Scale Knowledge Resources. Construction and Application: Third International Conference on Large-Scale Knowledge Resources, LKR 2008, Tokyo, Japan, March 3-5, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 38–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Triple Helix.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Now That’s A Close Shave: Secrets Of The Halloween Asteroid Headed For Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Internet Protocol Transition: FCC Should Strengthen Its Data Collection Efforts to Assess the Transition’s Effects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill KD (2012) Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Drake Is Back on Top, and Has a New Video, Too. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charron 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Charron 2009; Codelli and Reisman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Codelli and Reisman 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kizhatil et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTriple Helix
AbbreviationTriple Helix (Heidelb.)
ISSN (online)2197-1927

Other styles