How to format your references using the Triple Helix citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Triple Helix. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long TE (2014) Materials science. Toward recyclable thermosets. Science 344:706–707
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilga CD, Lauder GV (2004) Biomechanics: hydrodynamic function of the shark’s tail. Nature 430:850
A journal article with 3 authors
Mlynarski SN, Schuster CH, Morken JP (2014) Asymmetric synthesis from terminal alkenes by cascades of diboration and cross-coupling. Nature 505:386–390
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Drissner D, Kunze G, Callewaert N, et al (2007) Lyso-phosphatidylcholine is a signal in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Science 318:265–268

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards A, Dafydd H (2014) Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Haddar M, Romdhane L, Louati J, Ben Amara A (eds) (2013) Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems, CMSM´2013, Djerba, Tunisia, March 25-27, 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sokolova MV, Fernández Caballero A (2012) Data and Results. In: Fernández Caballero A (ed) Decision Making in Complex Systems: The DeciMaS Agent-based Interdisciplinary Framework Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 139–167

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Triple Helix.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) April Fools’ Day Comet To Swing By Earth This Weekend. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Problems in the Administration of Third-Party Funds under the Vocational Rehabilitation Program in Indiana. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusso AP (2010) The psychology of institutional development: How parties’ willingness to accept risk affects the districts they draw and the seats they win. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2003) An Old Friend Returns, Herbs and Fruit In Hand. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Long 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wilga and Lauder 2004; Long 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilga and Lauder 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Drissner et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTriple Helix
AbbreviationTriple Helix (Heidelb.)
ISSN (online)2197-1927

Other styles