How to format your references using the Triple Helix citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Triple Helix. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuhl PK (2011) Neuroscience. Who’s talking? Science 333:529–530
A journal article with 2 authors
Schirle NT, MacRae IJ (2012) The crystal structure of human Argonaute2. Science 336:1037–1040
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma BR, Manjanath A, Singh AK (2014) Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Sci Rep 4:7164
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Riedelsheimer C, Brotman Y, Méret M, et al (2013) The maize leaf lipidome shows multilevel genetic control and high predictive value for agronomic traits. Sci Rep 3:2479

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwarz DR (2014) Reading the European Novel to 1900. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Srivastava S (ed) (2016) Biomarker Discovery in the Developing World: Dissecting the Pipeline for Meeting the Challenges. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt J-M, Medwed M (2012) Countermeasures for Symmetric Key Ciphers. In: Joye M, Tunstall M (eds) Fault Analysis in Cryptography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 73–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Triple Helix.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Bill Gates Tells IFLScience How He Plans To Save The World In An Exclusive Interview. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Transportation Infrastructure: A Comparison of Federal and State Highway Laws. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell JR (2013) Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (1999) Secrecy Mounting As the Cup Draws Near. New York Times 814

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuhl 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kuhl 2011; Schirle and MacRae 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schirle and MacRae 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Riedelsheimer et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTriple Helix
AbbreviationTriple Helix (Heidelb.)
ISSN (online)2197-1927

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