How to format your references using the Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taubes G (2012) Treat obesity as physiology, not physics. Nature 492:155
A journal article with 2 authors
Boltasseva A, Atwater HA (2011) Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials. Science 331:290–291
A journal article with 3 authors
Leopold DA, Bondar IV, Giese MA (2006) Norm-based face encoding by single neurons in the monkey inferotemporal cortex. Nature 442:572–575
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cheng Y, Zhang H, Varanasi CV, Liu J (2013) Highly efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts based on winged carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep 3:3195

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pommier S, Gravouil A, Combescure A, Moës N (2013) Extended Finite Element Method for Crack Propagation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Nagase H (2011) Chemistry of Opioids. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bhasker J, Chadha R (2009) Interconnect Parasitics. In: Bhasker J (ed) Static Timing Analysis for Nanometer Designs: A Practical Approach. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 101–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Go West Young Tree – Climate Change Moves Forests In Unexpected Direction. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Public Works Consolidation: Jacksonville Naval Public Works Consolidation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan X (2008) Using Structural Information in Modeling and Multiple Alignments for Phylogenetics. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2003) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Israeli Rabbi Visits. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Digestion: Research and Current Opinion
AbbreviationFood Dig.
ISSN (print)1869-1978
ISSN (online)1869-1986
ScopeFood Science

Other styles