How to format your references using the Vehicle System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vehicle System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Römling U. Microbiology: bacterial communities as capitalist economies. Nature. 2013;497:321–322.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carmeliet P, Jain RK. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature. 2011;473:298–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma J, Angelucci A, Sur M. Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature. 2000;404:841–847.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Antkowiak M, Torres-Mapa ML, Witts EC, et al. Fast targeted gene transfection and optogenetic modification of single neurons using femtosecond laser irradiation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hallberg MC. Economic Trends in U.S. Agriculture and Food Systems Since World War II. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press; 2008.
An edited book
Membrey P. Learn Raspberry Pi 2 with Linux and Windows 10. Second Edition. Hows D, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiengo G, di Gaeta A, Palladino A, et al. Synthesis and Experimental Validation of a Fuel Injection Pressure Controller in a Common Rail System. In: di Gaeta A, Palladino A, Giglio V, editors. Common Rail System for GDI Engines: Modelling, Identification, and Control. London: Springer; 2013. p. 57–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vehicle System Dynamics.

Blog post
Davis J. UN Agrees To Tackle The Urgent Threat Posed By Antibiotic Resistance. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Senate Bill 991, A Bill to Establish a Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977. Report No.: B-149737. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hambarsoomian H. Classification of Placental Chorionic Surface Vasculature Network Features Using Machine Learning Techniques [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. Well, What Should Hillary Clinton Do? New York Times. 2017 Sep 9;SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVehicle System Dynamics
AbbreviationVeh. Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0042-3114
ISSN (online)1744-5159
ScopeAutomotive Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles