How to format your references using the Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson, M.I. Chemistry. Just Add Water. Science 2010, 329, 1157–1158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beveridge, C.; Morris, S. Order of Merit. Nature 2007, 448, 508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisbuch, M.; Pauker, K.; Ambady, N. The Subtle Transmission of Race Bias via Televised Nonverbal Behavior. Science 2009, 326, 1711–1714.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wolfe, A.M.; Jorgenson, R.A.; Robishaw, T.; Heiles, C.; Prochaska, J.X. An 84-MicroG Magnetic Field in a Galaxy at Redshift z = 0.692. Nature 2008, 455, 638–640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd, K. TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9780470684320.
An edited book
Primer of Geriatric Urology; Guzzo, T.J., Drach, G.W., Wein, A.J., Eds.; 2nd ed. 2016.; Springer: New York, NY, 2016; ISBN 9781493949267.
A chapter in an edited book
Gladkov, L.A.; Gladkova, N.V.; Leiba, S.N. Electronic Computing Equipment Schemes Elements Placement Based on Hybrid Intelligence Approach. In Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 2: Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory; Silhavy, R., Senkerik, R., Oplatkova, Z.K., Prokopova, Z., Silhavy, P., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 35–44 ISBN 9783319185026.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Kitchen Science: From Sizzling Brisket To Fresh Baked Bread, The Chemical Reaction That Makes Our Favourite Foods Taste So Good Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Hispanic Employment Statistics; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tu, K.-H. Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; Perot Shows Penchant For Seeing Conspiracy. New York Times 1992, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases
ISSN (online)2079-9721

Other styles