How to format your references using the Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bensaude-Vincent, B. Chemical Analysis. Nature 2001, 410, 415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ide, M.; Hidaka, S. Tactile Stimulation Can Suppress Visual Perception. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gladyshev, E.A.; Meselson, M.; Arkhipova, I.R. Massive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bdelloid Rotifers. Science 2008, 320, 1210–1213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shaw, M.R.; Zavaleta, E.S.; Chiariello, N.R.; Cleland, E.E.; Mooney, H.A.; Field, C.B. Grassland Responses to Global Environmental Changes Suppressed by Elevated CO2. Science 2002, 298, 1987–1990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, D.W.; Woodward, J.L. Release; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470935170.
An edited book
Knox, C. Public Policy, Philanthropy and Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland; Quirk, P., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137462688.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryan, T.M.; Sukhdeo, S. KSD-VP-1/1: Analysis of the Postcranial Skeleton Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. In The Postcranial Anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: New Insights from KSD-VP-1/1; Haile-Selassie, Y., Su, D.F., Eds.; Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2016; pp. 39–62 ISBN 9789401774277.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases.

Blog post
Hale, T. What’s The Story Behind These Weird Rock Spheres Found In Siberia? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Glossary of EDP Terminology; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tran, A. A Psychoeducational Program on Hoarding within the Vietnamese Community: Grant Writing Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. Rutgers Misses Shot At a Victory. New York Times 1999, 87.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases
ISSN (online)2079-9721

Other styles