How to format your references using the Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, P. Materials science. A composite matter of alignment. Science 2012, 335, 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bednarek, P.; Osbourn, A. Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science 2009, 324, 746–748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamas-Linares, A.; Howell, J.C.; Bouwmeester, D. Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature 2001, 412, 887–890.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, X.; Li, H.; Li, R.; Xie, D.; Ni, J.; Wu, L. Strong non-classical induction forces in ion-surface interactions: general origin of Hofmeister effects. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan, C. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444393675.
An edited book
Pavlov, A. CMOS SRAM Circuit Design and Parametric Test in Nano-Scaled Technologies: Process-Aware SRAM Design and Test; Sachdev, M., Ed.; Frontiers In Electronic Testing; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; Vol. 40; ISBN 9781402083624.
A chapter in an edited book
Porteš, P.; Laurinec, M.; Blat’ák, O. Discrete-Difference Filter in Vehicle Dynamics Analysis. In Recent Advances in Mechatronics; Brezina, T., Jablonski, R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 19–24 ISBN 9783642050213.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases.

Blog post
Hale, T. Planet Earth II Releases New Footage Of The Epic Baby Iguana-Snake Showdown Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Operations: NASA Is Not Properly Safeguarding Valuable Data From Past Missions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins, J.D. Answers in diagenesis: Assessing mussel shell diagenesis in the modern vadose zone at Lyon’s Bluff (22OK520), northeast Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. Across the Spectrum, Conspiracy Talk Is Rife. New York Times 2017, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases
ISSN (online)2079-9721

Other styles