How to format your references using the Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller-Wodarg, I.C.F. Planetary Science. Exploring Other Worlds to Learn More about Our Own. Science 2006, 312, 1319–1320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balazs, A.C.; Epstein, I.R. Chemistry. Emergent or Just Complex? Science 2009, 325, 1632–1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chesler, P.M.; Liu, H.; Adams, A. Holographic Vortex Liquids and Superfluid Turbulence. Science 2013, 341, 368–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qian, G.-R.; Lyakhov, A.O.; Zhu, Q.; Oganov, A.R.; Dong, X. Novel Hydrogen Hydrate Structures under Pressure. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akcoglu, M.A.; Bartha, P.F.A.; Ha, D.M. Analysis in Vector Spaces; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118164587.
An edited book
The Patellofemoral Joint: State of the Art in Evaluation and Management; Gobbi, A., Espregueira-Mendes, J., Nakamura, N., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; ISBN 9783642549649.
A chapter in an edited book
Drescher, M.; Buse, L.J.; Perera, A.H.; Ouellette, M.R. Eliciting Expert Knowledge of Forest Succession Using an Innovative Software Tool. In Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology; Perera, A.H., Drew, C.A., Johnson, C.J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; pp. 69–85 ISBN 9781461410331.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Some Scientific Explanations for Alien Abduction That Aren’t so Out of This World Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office VA Information Technology: Improvements Needed to Implement Legislative Reforms; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turpin-Padberg, S. Effects of Elementary Teacher Preparation and Support on Retention. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L.; Victor, D. Who’s Right About G.O.P. Bill’s Claims, a Senator or a Late-Night Host? New York Times 2017, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases
ISSN (online)2079-9721

Other styles