How to format your references using the Tribology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunn, B.: Cancer: Solving an age-old problem. Nature. 483, S2-6 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, K., Siliciano, R.F.: HIV: Early treatment may not be early enough. Nature. 512, 35–36 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Acevedo, A., Brodsky, L., Andino, R.: Mutational and fitness landscapes of an RNA virus revealed through population sequencing. Nature. 505, 686–690 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakayama, J., Rice, J.C., Strahl, B.D., Allis, C.D., Grewal, S.I.: Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly. Science. 292, 110–113 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kühn, V.: Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Chen, S.-H., Wang, P.P., Kuo, T.-W. eds: Computational Intelligence in Economics and Finance: Volume II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Fairman, D., Chigas, D., McClintock, E., Drager, N.: Coalition-Building and Process Strategies. In: Chigas, D., McClintock, E., and Drager, N. (eds.) Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action. pp. 63–79. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: What is a comet, and will ISON explode?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Management of a National Science Foundation Office of Energy Research and Development Policy Grant to the George Washington University: Questions, Answers, and Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, C.: The Crowd, (2011)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak, A., Walsh, M.W.: Justices Reject Puerto Rico Law in Case on Restructuring Debt, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology Letters
AbbreviationTribol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1023-8883
ISSN (online)1573-2711
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles