How to format your references using the Tribology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood, D.: Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature. 488, 451–453 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rainey, P.B., Rainey, K.: Evolution of cooperation and conflict in experimental bacterial populations. Nature. 425, 72–74 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Silbergeld, E., Lerman, S., Hushka, L.: Ethics. Human health research ethics. Science. 305, 949 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pushkarsky, I., Liu, Y., Lyb, Y., Weaver, W., Su, T.-W., Mudanyali, O., Ozcan, A., Di Carlo, D.: Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy. Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kukushkin, A.: Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG (2004)
An edited book
Csanády, E.: Mechanics of Wood Machining. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Jordan, L., Greyling, P.: Introducing SL4A: The Scripting Layer for Android. In: Greyling, P. (ed.) Practical Android Projects. pp. 193–220. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology Letters.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Spots “Pearl” Storm On Jupiter


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Issues Surrounding the Transition from the Space Shuttle to the Next Generation of Human Space Flight Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyngarkos, B.: Examination of the relative importance of website elements for users of manufacturers representative websites, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernard, T.S.: Prosecutors Open Criminal Investigation Into Sweeping Equifax Data Breach, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology Letters
AbbreviationTribol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1023-8883
ISSN (online)1573-2711
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles