How to format your references using the Tribology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C.: Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts. Nature. 521, 426–427 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Cemma, M., Brumell, J.H.: Immunology. Bacterial escape artists set afire. Science. 339, 912–913 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan, Y., Yu, D., Yao, Y.-G.: Tree shrew database (TreeshrewDB): a genomic knowledge base for the Chinese tree shrew. Sci. Rep. 4, 7145 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jacchetti, E., Di Rienzo, C., Meucci, S., Nocchi, F., Beltram, F., Cecchini, M.: Wharton’s Jelly human mesenchymal stem cell contact guidance by noisy nanotopographies. Sci. Rep. 4, 3830 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geng, H.: Data Center Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Kaklamanis, C., Nielson, F. eds: Trustworthy Global Computing: 4th International Symposium, TGC 2008, Barcelona, Spain, November 3-4, 2008, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Tseng, S.M., Zhang, K., Wu, S.F., Ma, K.-L., Teoh, S.T., Zhao, X.: Analysis of BGP Origin AS Changes Among Brazil-Related Autonomous Systems. In: Medhi, D., Nogueira, J.M., Pfeifer, T., and Wu, S.F. (eds.) IP Operations and Management: 7th IEEE International Workshop, IPOM 2007 San José, USA, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings. pp. 49–60. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Young Blood Speeds Healing Of Old Broken Bones,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-Front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roche, W.A.: The Structure and Grounding of Epistemic Justification, (2006)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N.: Russia’s Villages, and Their Culture, Are ‘Melting Away,’ (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology Letters
AbbreviationTribol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1023-8883
ISSN (online)1573-2711
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles