How to format your references using the Clinical Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton J. Chagas disease: pushing through the pipeline. Nature. 2010;465:S12-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay RD, Ajayaghosh A. Supramolecular chemistry. Living supramolecular polymerization. Science. 2015;349:241–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lind G, Linsmeier CE, Schouenborg J. The density difference between tissue and neural probes is a key factor for glial scarring. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2942.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Martins F, Faniel S, Rosenow B, Sellier H, Huant S, Pala MG, et al. Coherent tunnelling across a quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1416.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager FH, Rosteck H. Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Taylor IJ, Deelman E, Gannon DB, Shields M, editors. Workflows for e-Science: Scientific Workflows for Grids. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaidanovskii NL. The Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In: Braude SY, Salomonovich AE, Samanian VA, Shklovskii IS, Sorochenko RL, Troitskii VS, et al., editors. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR: A Collection of Scientific Essays. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. page 117–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. From Great Red Spot To Orange Pimple: Is Jupiter’s Superstorm Finally Blowing Over? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reporting of Federal Funds for Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Aug. Report No.: PSAD-78-133.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sowers PA. “Klanaheim”: Suburbia, civic identity, and the second Ku Klux Klan [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Soccer Is Welcome At Home of Sox. New York Times. 2012;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Chemistry
AbbreviationClin. Chem.
ISSN (print)0009-9147
ISSN (online)1530-8561
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Biochemistry, medical

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