How to format your references using the Tribology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Giles J. Think like a bee. Nature 2001;410:510–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Coles HJ, Pivnenko MN. Liquid crystal “blue phases” with a wide temperature range. Nature 2005;436:997–1000.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Wisse BE, Kim F, Schwartz MW. Physiology. An integrative view of obesity. Science 2007;318:928–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhu C, Hu W, Wu H, Hu X. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and its cytotoxicity--a paradoxical issue in ROS-based cancer therapy. Sci Rep 2014;4:5029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Blanchet G, Charbit M. Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Lodaya K, Mahajan M, editors. FSTTCS 2004: Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science: 24th International Conference, Chennai, India, December 16-18, 2004. Proceedings. vol. 3328. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Zhu Q. Rainwater Harvesting Techniques for Irrigation. In: Zhu Q, Gould J, Li Y, Ma C, editors. Rainwater Harvesting for Agriculture and Water Supply, Singapore: Springer; 2015, p. 165–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology International.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. Traveling To Mars With Immortal Plasma Rockets. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Payroll Activities, Atlanta Postal Data Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Sink RC. Exploring a high school community relations and parent involvement program. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Crow K. Selling Tea as Serenity, Not Snobbery. New York Times 2000:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology International
AbbreviationTribol. Int.
ISSN (print)0301-679X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles