How to format your references using the Tribology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Ristein J. Physics. Surface transfer doping of semiconductors. Science 2006;313:1057–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Knouse KA, Amon A. Cell biology: the micronucleus gets its big break. Nature 2015;522:162–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Furlong KP, Lay T, Ammon CJ. A great earthquake rupture across a rapidly evolving three-plate boundary. Science 2009;324:226–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Brixner T, Stenger J, Vaswani HM, Cho M, Blankenship RE, Fleming GR. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of electronic couplings in photosynthesis. Nature 2005;434:625–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Kerzner H. Project Management 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Beckner M. Microsoft Dynamics CRM API Development for Online and On-Premise Environments. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Piroi F, Zenz V. Evaluating Information Retrieval in the Intellectual Property Domain: The Clef–Ip Campaign. In: Lupu M, Mayer K, Tait J, Trippe AJ, editors. Current Challenges in Patent Information Retrieval, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 87–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology International.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. One-Off Legal Sale Of Ivory Stockpiles Led To A Dramatic Increase In Elephant Poaching. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/oneoff-legal-sale-of-ivory-stockpiles-led-to-a-dramatic-increase-in-elephant-poaching/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Exempting FAA from Procurement and Personnel Rules. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Kunihiro AG. The relationship between dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Poniewozik J. In Testimony, a Reboot of Classic TV Hearings Past. New York Times 2017:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology International
AbbreviationTribol. Int.
ISSN (print)0301-679X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

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