How to format your references using the Tribology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Dunn CW. Genomics: Acorn worms in a nutshell. Nature 2015;527:448–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Apps R, Carrington M. Response to Comment on “Influence of HLA-C expression level on HIV control.” Science 2013;341:1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Martinez F, Goodliffe AM, Taylor B. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion. Nature 2001;411:930–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lander GC, Tang L, Casjens SR, Gilcrease EB, Prevelige P, Poliakov A, et al. The structure of an infectious P22 virion shows the signal for headful DNA packaging. Science 2006;312:1791–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Brendel R. Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Dunlap BJ, editor. Proceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Ding L, Jin C, Guan J, Zhang S, Cui T, Zhao W. New Related Key Attacks on the RAKAPOSHI Stream Cipher. In: Lopez J, Wu Y, editors. Information Security Practice and Experience: 11th International Conference, ISPEC 2015, Beijing, China, May 5-8, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology International.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. How Hefty Dinosaurs Didn’t Crush Their Own Eggs. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-hefty-dinosaurs-didnt-crush-their-own-eggs/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 2001 Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Turner LB. Diet, physical activity and breast cancer risk: An integrative science cross-populational approach. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Gabriel T. ‘We’re Throwaway People.’ New York Times 2017:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology International
AbbreviationTribol. Int.
ISSN (print)0301-679X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

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