How to format your references using the Tribology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Farmelo G. Dirac’s hidden geometry. Nature 2005;437:323.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Bayer R, Colgrove J. Public health vs. civil liberties. Science 2002;297:1811.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Tsubogo T, Oyamada H, Kobayashi S. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts. Nature 2015;520:329–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Volchkov VE, Volchkova VA, Muhlberger E, Kolesnikova LV, Weik M, Dolnik O, et al. Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity. Science 2001;291:1965–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Port M. Beyond Booked Solid. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Riele K te, Gorur R, editors. Interrogating Conceptions of “Vulnerable Youth” in Theory, Policy and Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Harper BWJ, van Holst M, Aldrich-Wright J. Platinum(II) Intercalating Complexes Based on 2,2′:6′,2″-Terpyridine. In: Aldrich-Wright J, editor. Metallointercalators: Synthesis and Techniques to Probe Their Interactions with Biomolecules, Vienna: Springer; 2011, p. 101–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology International.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. Comet 67P Was Made By Two Bodies Merging Together, New Evidence Suggests. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Troops to Teachers: Program Helped Address Teacher Shortages. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Bowmar JS. Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky S. Distance Learning: RussiaIs Reaching Out. New York Times 2001:4A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology International
AbbreviationTribol. Int.
ISSN (print)0301-679X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

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