How to format your references using the Tribology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tribology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hillebrandt-Andrade C. Geophysics. Minimizing Caribbean tsunami risk. Science 2013;341:966–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mesecar AD, Koshland DE Jr. A new model for protein stereospecificity. Nature 2000;403:614–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Z, Zhang X-S, Zhang S. Breast tumor subgroups reveal diverse clinical prognostic power. Sci Rep 2014;4:4002.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sanz JL, Chiappe LM, Fernández-Jalvo Y, Ortega F, Sánchez-Chillón B, Poyato-Ariza FJ, et al. An early Cretaceous pellet. Nature 2001;409:998–1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biswas S, Ray P, Chakrabarti BK. Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Mukhopadhyay SC, Huang RYM, editors. Sensors: Advancements in Modeling, Design Issues, Fabrication and Practical Applications. vol. 21. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Madanhire I, Mbohwa C. Green Lubricant Design and Practice Concept. In: Mbohwa C, editor. Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tribology International.

Blog post
Andrew E. Astronomers Spot Square Hole In Sun. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Faces Challenges in Its Attempt to Achieve Planned Flight Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Qian J. Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. That Gravy Boat Has Sailed. New York Times 2015:ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTribology International
AbbreviationTribol. Int.
ISSN (print)0301-679X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles