How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kanwisher N. Neuroscience. What’s in a face? Science. 311(5761), 617–618 (2006).
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodríguez-Trelles F, Rodríguez MA. Comment on “Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura.” Science. 315(5818), 1497; author reply 1497 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
Menz MHM, Dixon KW, Hobbs RJ. Ecology. Hurdles and opportunities for landscape-scale restoration. Science. 339(6119), 526–527 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Banavar JR, Damuth J, Maritan A, Rinaldo A. Physiology: Allometric cascades. Nature. 421(6924), 713–4; discussion 714 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gauthier M, Andreff N, Dombre E. Intracorporeal Robotics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, USA.
An edited book
Lambris JD, editor. Current Topics in Complement. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang F, Li X, Lu M, Xiao Z. Robust Abrupt Motion Tracking via Adaptive Hamiltonian Monte Carlo Sampling. In: PRICAI 2014: Trends in Artificial Intelligence: 13th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia, December 1-5, 2014. Proceedings. Pham D-N, Park S-B (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 52–63 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Luntz S. Gene Found That Harms Males, Not Females [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pell Grant Validation Imposes Some Costs and Does Not Greatly Reduce Award Errors: New Strategies Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao EA. Understanding Employment to Entrepreneurship Transitions among Women Working in the Tech Industry. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Everyone’s Got a Different Dream. New York Times, RE2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806

Other styles