How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV. Rivalry and red tape. Nature. 436(7050), 490–491 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomberg J, Johnson P. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes. Nature. 437(7060), 830 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Lazzerini GM, Strambini LM, Barillaro G. Addressing reliability and degradation of chemitransistor sensors by electrical tuning of the sensitivity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1161 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kemper F, Jäger C, Waters LBFM, et al. Detection of carbonates in dust shells around evolved stars. Nature. 415(6869), 295–297 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwarz DR. Reading the European Novel to 1900. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chaudhuri S, Das SR, Paul HS, Tirthapura S, editors. Distributed Computing and Networking: 8th International Conference, ICDCN 2006, Guwahati, India, December 27-30, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Budd AF, Klaus JS. Early Evolution of the Montastraea “annularis” Species Complex (Anthozoa: Scleractinia): Evidence from the Mio-Pliocene of the Dominican Republic. In: Evolutionary Stasis and Change in the Dominican Republic Neogene. Nehm RH, Budd AF (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 85–123 (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Understanding Dark Matter Using Supercomputers [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Have Automobile Weight Reductions Increased Highway Fatalities? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allard L. Exposure to Low-Level Ionizing Radiation and Risk of Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Participants of the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program. (2006).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. As E.U.’s Roster Swells, So Does Linguistic Burden. New York Times, A7 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806

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