How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaffer S. The laird of physics. Nature. 471(7338), 289–291 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattaj IW, Tocchini-Valentini GP. Laying solid foundations for Europe. Nature. 447(7143), 377–378 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
Mora C, Rollo A, Tittensor DP. Comment on “Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct?” Science. 341(6143), 237 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Qiu Y, He X-H, Zhang Y, Li J-X. Discriminative stimulus effects of the novel imidazoline I₂ receptor ligand CR4056 in rats. Sci. Rep. 4, 6605 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blumberg LM. Temperature-Programmed Gas Chromatography. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Sahayaraj K. Artificial Rearing of Reduviid Predators for Pest Management. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Privat M, Warner R. Creating a Data Model. In: Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. Warner R (Ed.), Apress, Berkeley, CA, 107–127 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Davis J. Vitamin D Supplements May Help Reduce The Risk Of Severe Asthma Attacks [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Human Space Exploration: Opportunity Nears to Reassess Launch Vehicle and Ground Systems Cost and Schedule. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lupian S. Educating the Latino community on the relationship between obesity and psychosocial well being. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Early Emmy Leads For ‘S.N.L.’ and HBO. New York Times, C3 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806

Other styles