How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Padma TV. Strength in numbers. Nature. 436(7050), 492–493 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gilfanov M, Bogdán A. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate. Nature. 463(7283), 924–925 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Esteban J, Mayoral L, Ray D. Ethnicity and conflict: theory and facts. Science. 336(6083), 858–865 (2012).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Harms KE, Wright SJ, Calderón O, Hernández A, Herre EA. Pervasive density-dependent recruitment enhances seedling diversity in a tropical forest. Nature. 404(6777), 493–495 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zhang W, Shmulevich I, Astola J. Microarray Quality Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
1.
Hruschka ER, Watada J, Carmo Nicoletti M do, editors. Integrated Computing Technology: First International Conference, INTECH 2011, Sao Carlos, Brazil, May 31 – June 2, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cosottini M. Nervi cranici. In: Anatomia RM dell’encefalo. Cosottini M (Ed.), Springer, Milano, 75–85 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Origins Of Mysterious “Sprite” Lightning Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/origins-mysterious-sprite-lightning-discovered/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit Grants: Noncompliance and Misspent Funds by Two Grantees in UMTA’s New York Region. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Royalty AR. U.S. Military Advisors in Iraq: A Phenomenological Research Study on the Role of National Culture on Tactical Decision-making during Wartime. (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Koblin J. Marcia Clark Has Moment to Savor at Emmys. New York Times, C1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806
Scope

Other styles