How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard C. Pharmacotherapy: Quest for the quitting pill. Nature. 522(7557), S53-5 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Kilpatrick AM, Ives AR. Species interactions can explain Taylor’s power law for ecological time series. Nature. 422(6927), 65–68 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Tosi L, Teatini P, Strozzi T. Natural versus anthropogenic subsidence of Venice. Sci. Rep. 3, 2710 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sánchez-Lavega A, del Río-Gaztelurrutia T, Hueso R, et al. Deep winds beneath Saturn’s upper clouds from a seasonal long-lived planetary-scale storm. Nature. 475(7354), 71–74 (2011).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Irene EA. Electronic Materials Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bhatnagar V, Srinivasa S, editors. Big Data Analytics: Second International Conference, BDA 2013, Mysore, India, December 16-18, 2013, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Goubault-Larrecq J. Simulation Hemi-metrics between Infinite-State Stochastic Games. In: Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures: 11th International Conference, FOSSACS 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29 - April 6, 2008. Proceedings. Amadio R (Ed.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 50–65 (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Horizons’ Close Encounter with Pluto will Reveal its Icy Secrets [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Domestic Aviation: Effects of Changes in How Airline Tickets Are Sold. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham AT. Factorization of polynomials modulo a prime. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Slow Down and Hide Your Wallet: Traffic Police Ahead. New York Times, A4 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806

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