How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keeling RF. Atmospheric science. Recording Earth’s vital signs. Science. 319(5871), 1771–1772 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan H, Marmorstein R. Biochemistry. Red wine, toast of the town (again). Science. 339(6124), 1156–1157 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic J, Coontz R, Osborne I. Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science. 332(6026), 189 (2011).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoshida M, Zhang Y, Ye J, et al. Controlling charge-density-wave states in nano-thick crystals of 1T-TaS2. Sci. Rep. 4, 7302 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Douglas RG, Krantz SG, Sawyer ET, Treil S, Wick BD, editors. The Corona Problem: Connections Between Operator Theory, Function Theory, and Geometry. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Wessels H. Statistics in the South African School Curriculum. In: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education: A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI Study. Batanero C, Burrill G, Reading C (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 21–25 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why Are There More Men Than Women? [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: Planned Funding and Schedule for D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Are Unrealistic. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell JR. Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S. The Power of a Simple Nudge. New York Times, BU6 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806

Other styles