How to format your references using the Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ziff RM. Mathematics. Getting the jump on explosive percolation. Science. 339(6124), 1159–1160 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Elsner C, Abel B. Ultrafast high-resolution mass spectrometric finger pore imaging in latent finger prints. Sci. Rep. 4, 6905 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Burns PC, Ewing RC, Navrotsky A. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident. Science. 335(6073), 1184–1188 (2012).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Arantes-Oliveira N, Apfeld J, Dillin A, Kenyon C. Regulation of life-span by germ-line stem cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science. 295(5554), 502–505 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gao J. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
1.
Peng C. Communication and Control for Networked Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Cao D. Legal Speech Acts as Intersubjective Communicative Action. In: Interpretation, Law and the Construction of Meaning: Collected Papers on Legal Interpretation in Theory, Adjudication and Political Practice. Werner W, Cao D (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 65–82 (2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Hawaii Lava Tube Returns Days After Cliff Collapse [Internet]. IFLScience (2017). Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/hawaii-lava-tube-returns-days-after-cliff-collapse/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Commuter Airline Safety Would Be Enhanced With Better FAA Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hebel O. Parental involvement in the individual educational program for Israeli students with disabilities. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices to Expand Review of “Partial-Birth” Abortion Ban. New York Times, A14 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Investig. (Lond.)
ISSN (print)2041-6792
ISSN (online)2041-6806
Scope

Other styles