How to format your references using the Mayo Clinic Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mayo Clinic Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Building Nordic networks. Nature. 2002;420(6916 Suppl):A3, A5, A7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivenbark AG, Strahl BD. Molecular biology. Unlocking cell fate. Science. 2007;318(5849):403-404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez-Villagra MR, Aguilera O, Horovitz I. The anatomy of the world’s largest extinct rodent. Science. 2003;301(5640):1708-1710.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang ZY, Seto H, Fujioka S, Yoshida S, Chory J. BRI1 is a critical component of a plasma-membrane receptor for plant steroids. Nature. 2001;410(6826):380-383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hannam J. What Everyone Needs to Know about Tax. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Kolobov AV. Two-Dimensional Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides. Vol 239. (Tominaga J, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed A, Mansor A, Albagul A. Design and Fabrication of an Automatic Sprinkler Fire Fighting System. In: Chouchane M, Fakhfakh T, Daly HB, Aifaoui N, Chaari F, eds. Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems - II: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems, CMSM’2015, March 23-25, Hammamet, Tunisia. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer International Publishing; 2015:41-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Blog post
Andrew D. Phosphorus Is Vital For Life On Earth – And We’re Running Low. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: DHS Needs to Fully Define and Implement Policies and Procedures for Effectively Managing Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson CL. Hispanic Female Undergraduates Perception of Nursing as a Career Choice: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haughney C, Carr D. Boston Globe Is Another Metro Paper Gone Local. New York Times. August 5, 2013:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMayo Clinic Proceedings
AbbreviationMayo Clin. Proc.
ISSN (print)0025-6196
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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