How to format your references using the Trials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schlütter J. Prevention: Vaccine for all seasons. Nature. 2011;480:S6-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Green CS, Bavelier D. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature. 2003;423:534–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Otterbein LR, Graceffa P, Dominguez R. The crystal structure of uncomplexed actin in the ADP state. Science. 2001;293:708–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bigay J, Gounon P, Robineau S, Antonny B. Lipid packing sensed by ArfGAP1 couples COPI coat disassembly to membrane bilayer curvature. Nature. 2003;426:563–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fernandez-Maloigne C, Robert-Inacio F, Macaire L. Digital Color. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Khan Mohammad Beigi P. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician’s Guide. Maverakis E, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wu Y, Zhang G. Studies on Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. In: Wen K, Zhu E, editors. Report on Development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province (2013): Measurement of Carrying Capacity and Countermeasures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trials.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Alien-Like Lobster Found In Nova Scotia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/alien-lobster-found-nova-scotia/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Advance Sheets: Volume 73, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: OGC-94-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tan-atichat TP. Behavior of VNC in high-latency environments and techniques for improvement [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Powell M. A Blood Feud, Sanitized for Your Displeasure. New York Times. 2017 Aug 13;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrials
AbbreviationTrials
ISSN (online)1745-6215
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles