How to format your references using the GeoInformatica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GeoInformatica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cully M (2014) Public health: The politics of antibiotics. Nature 509:S16-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Hudson PJ, Bjørnstad ON (2003) Ecology. Vole stranglers and lemming cycles. Science 302:797–798
A journal article with 3 authors
Froese T, Iizuka H, Ikegami T (2014) Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: a minimalist virtual reality experiment. Sci Rep 4:3672
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Etienne RS, Latimer AM, Silander JA Jr, Cowling RM (2006) Comment on “Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot.” Science 311:610

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lueder E (2011) 3D Displays. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sumi A, Fukushi K, Hiramatsu A (2010) Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Di Risio M, Ballantyne PJ, Read S (2016) Living Optimally with HIV: Youth Experience in a Metropolitan Canadian City. In: Liamputtong P (ed) Children and Young People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 89–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GeoInformatica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The “Water World” Theory Of The Origins Of Life Revamped. In: IFLScience.“water-world”-theory-origins-life-revamped/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco R (2010) Latinas attainment of higher education: What factors contribute to their success? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) A Driving Spirit Is Conspicuous by His Absence. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoInformatica
ISSN (print)1384-6175
ISSN (online)1573-7624
ScopeInformation Systems
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles