How to format your references using the Trends in Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer, M. (2004) Education. The evolution of postdocs. Science 306, 232
A journal article with 2 authors
Heath, R.J. and Rock, C.O. (2000) A triclosan-resistant bacterial enzyme. Nature 406, 145–146
A journal article with 3 authors
Bacci, A. et al. (2004) Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids. Nature 431, 312–316
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Ni, G.X. et al. (2018) Fundamental limits to graphene plasmonics. Nature 557, 530–533

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong, K.D. (2011) Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Engineering Technologies, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hua, G. and Jégou, H., eds. (2016) Computer Vision – ECCV 2016 Workshops: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 8-10 and 15-16, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, 9913Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Armgardt, M. (2015) Presumptions and Conjectures in Leibniz’s Legal Theory. In Past and Present Interactions in Legal Reasoning and Logic (Armgardt, M. et al., eds), pp. 51–69, Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Parasitology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 17-Feb-(2015) , FDA Buries Evidence of Fraud. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Telecommunications: Issues in Providing Cable and Satellite Television Services, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos, I. (2017) , Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. and Walsh, M.W. 15-Oct-(2015) , Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. , New York Times, B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Parasitology
AbbreviationTrends Parasitol.
ISSN (print)1471-4922
ISSN (online)1471-5007
Infectious Diseases

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