How to format your references using the Trends in Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gerber, C. (2013) Heinrich Rohrer (1933-2013). Nature 499, 30
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerman, J.B. and Anastas, P.T. (2015) Chemistry. Toward substitution with no regrets. Science 347, 1198–1199
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, P.C.W. et al. (2002) Black holes constrain varying constants. Nature 418, 602–603
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Choi, Y.-R. et al. (2014) Laser-induced greenish-blue photoluminescence of mesoporous silicon nanowires. Sci. Rep. 4, 4940

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mauthe, A. and Thomas, P. (2005) Professional Content Management Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Musiani, F. et al., eds. (2016) The Turn to Infrastructure in Internet Governance, Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Maher, N.G. and Murrell, D.F. (2015) A 52-Year-Old Italian Male with Widespread Blistering and Erosions Refractory to Regular Dose Prednisone. In Clinical Cases in Autoimmune Blistering Diseases (Murrell, D. F., ed), pp. 27–34, Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Parasitology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 30-Mar-(2017) , Five Maps That Will Change How You See The World. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Strategic Forces: Supportability, Maintainability, and Readiness of the B-1B Bomber, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perantoni, E.J. (2010) , Course design based on the Kolb learning style as it relates to student success in online classes. , Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. and Ivory, D. 08-Sep-(2016) , Bill to Weaken Dodd-Frank’s Rules on Private Equity Nears House Vote. , New York Times, B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Parasitology
AbbreviationTrends Parasitol.
ISSN (print)1471-4922
ISSN (online)1471-5007
Infectious Diseases

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