How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rocha B. Comment on “Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells.” Science 2005 10;308:1553; author reply 1553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milne S, Hinde R. Obituary: Joseph Rotblat 1908-2005. Nature 2005 29;437:634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz W, Kritzinger S, Skirbekk V. Population. The demography of growing European identity. Science 2006 20;314:425.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coolen MJL, Cypionka H, Sass AM, Sass H, Overmann J. Ongoing modification of Mediterranean Pleistocene sapropels mediated by prokaryotes. Science 2002 28;296:2407–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable J, Herrmann T. Counselling Skills for Dietitians. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Jeyakumar V. Nonsmooth Vector Functions and Continuous Optimization. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao F, Derguech W, Zaremba M. Extending BPMN 2.0 to Enable Links between Process Models and ARIS Views Modeled with Linked Data. In: Abramowicz W, Maciaszek L, Węcel K, editors. Business Information Systems Workshops: BIS 2011 International Workshops and BPSC International Conference, Poznań, Poland, June 15-17, 2011. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrews R. Congress Passes Bill To Recruit More Women Into STEM Careers [Internet]. IFLScience 2017 1 [cited 2018 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Challenge of Data Sharing: Results of a GAO-Sponsored Symposium on Benefit and Loan Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia AD. Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sifton S. Give ’Em the Bird. New York Times 2013 3;MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationScand. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0036-5548
ISSN (online)1651-1980
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles