How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature 2003 9;425:644.
A journal article with 2 authors
Isalan M, Morrison M. This title is false. Nature 2009 23;458:969.
A journal article with 3 authors
Misura KM, Scheller RH, Weis WI. Three-dimensional structure of the neuronal-Sec1-syntaxin 1a complex. Nature 2000 23;404:355–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luquet S, Perez FA, Hnasko TS, Palmiter RD. NPY/AgRP neurons are essential for feeding in adult mice but can be ablated in neonates. Science 2005 28;310:683–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalev VA. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Berbari A, Mancia G, editors. Arterial Disorders: Definition, Clinical Manifestations, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wong K. Defining Diabetic Retinopathy Severity. In: Browning DJ, editor. Diabetic Retinopathy: Evidence-Based Management. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 105–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Plants release chemical weapons and deploy insect armies in their defence [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 26 [cited 2018 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Transportation: The Content and Uses of Shuttle Cost Estimates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anisko JJ. Selling Mexico’s vistas: A visual discourse analysis of promotional materials of Loreto Bay, Mexico. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember S. The Empire Of Glamour Loses a King. New York Times 2017 2;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationScand. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0036-5548
ISSN (online)1651-1980
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles