How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill LA. Retrospective. Jürg Tschopp (1951-2011). Science 2011 6;332:679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lafuerza LF, Toral R. On the effect of heterogeneity in stochastic interacting-particle systems. Sci. Rep. 2013 1;3:1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pryke SR, Rollins LA, Griffith SC. Females use multiple mating and genetically loaded sperm competition to target compatible genes. Science 2010 20;329:964–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kappers IF, Aharoni A, van Herpen TWJM, Luckerhoff LLP, Dicke M, Bouwmeester HJ. Genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to Arabidopsis. Science 2005 23;309:2070–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire P, Hampton D. Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Parrotta JA, Trosper RL, editors. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge: Sustaining Communities, Ecosystems and Biocultural Diversity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Hashizume H, van der Gaast S, Theng BKG. Interactions of Clay Minerals with RNA Components. In: Pontarotti P, editor. Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. David Attenborough’s Wonderful World [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 8 [cited 2018 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Excise Taxes: Use of Safe Harbor Look-Back Rules. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume DA. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Impact Report Clears Russian Oil Project. New York Times 2007 9;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationScand. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0036-5548
ISSN (online)1651-1980
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles