How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu HP. Biochemistry. Enzymes in coherent motion. Science 2012 20;335:300–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeomans DK, Veverka J. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004). Nature 2004 4;432:31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi A, Kim B, Matsuoka S. The mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, regulates automaticity of HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Sci. Rep. 2013 26;3:2766.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bäurle I, Smith L, Baulcombe DC, Dean C. Widespread role for the flowering-time regulators FCA and FPA in RNA-mediated chromatin silencing. Science 2007 5;318:109–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss J. Handbook of Ion Chromatography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
Tseng CC. Learning Basic Genetics with Interactive Computer Programs. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang G, Zhang Q, Yan X. Observer-Based Feedback Stabilization. In: Zhang Q, Yan X, editors. Analysis and Design of Singular Markovian Jump Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 161–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. Markings On 3.4-Million-Year-Old Bones Suggest They Were Butchered, Not Trampled [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 21 [cited 2018 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholders Generally Satisfied but TSA Could Improve Analysis, Awareness, and Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ku Y. Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. World Order, in a Nutshell. New York Times 2016 12;SP13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationScand. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0036-5548
ISSN (online)1651-1980
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles