How to format your references using the Advances in Difference Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Difference Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D.: Developing world gets patent aid. Nature. 415, 563 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kosten, S., Lacerot, G.: Life in science. It takes a village. Science. 324, 1265 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathew-Fenn, R.S., Das, R., Harbury, P.A.B.: Remeasuring the double helix. Science. 322, 446–449 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wilkins, C., Dishongh, R., Moore, S.C., Whitt, M.A., Chow, M., Machaca, K.: RNA interference is an antiviral defence mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 436, 1044–1047 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saghyan, A.S., Langer, P.: Asymmetric Synthesis of Non&;#x02010;Proteinogenic Amino Acids. Wiley&;#x02010;VCH Verlag GmbH &;#38; Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2016)
An edited book
Gabriel, E.A., Gabriel, S.A. eds: Inflammatory Response in Cardiovascular Surgery. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez-Díez, J.M.: Complex Fractures of the Distal Radius. In: Rodríguez-Merchán, E.C. and Rubio-Suárez, J.C. (eds.) Complex Fractures of the Limbs: Diagnosis and Management. pp. 29–35. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Difference Equations.

Blog post
Fang, J.: New Horned Dino Had Headgear Shaped Like Wings,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: The Legislative Focus on Federal ADP Procurement and GAO’s Role. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1976)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard Puppa, E.L.: Duration of case management: Correlation with Medicaid pediatric patient outcomes, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Take Up Police Use of Lethal Force, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Difference Equations
AbbreviationAdv. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (online)1687-1847
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Applied Mathematics

Other styles