How to format your references using the Advances in Difference Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Difference Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hand, E.: Plumes of methane identified on Mars. Nature. 455, 1018 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Buesseler, K.O., Boyd, P.W.: Climate change. Will ocean fertilization work? Science. 300, 67–68 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bar-Yam, Y., Harmon, D., de Bivort, B.: Systems biology. Attractors and democratic dynamics. Science. 323, 1016–1017 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bowers, P.M., Cokus, S.J., Eisenberg, D., Yeates, T.O.: Use of logic relationships to decipher protein network organization. Science. 306, 2246–2249 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Institute of Management and Administration (IOMA): Cost Reduction and Control Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Mester, R., Felsberg, M. eds: Pattern Recognition: 33rd DAGM Symposium, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, August 31 – September 2, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Monahan, T.S.: Microvascular Changes in the Diabetic Foot. In: Shrikhande, G.V. and McKinsey, J.F. (eds.) Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management. pp. 53–62. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Difference Equations.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Scientists Create 3D, High-Capacity Soft Batteries Using Trees,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financial Management: NASA’s Decisions Are Based on Unreliable Systems Data and Reports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adaligil, E.: Electron transfer through self-assembled monolayers of alkaneselenols and alkanethiols on mercury electrode, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Difference Equations
AbbreviationAdv. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (online)1687-1847
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Applied Mathematics

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