How to format your references using the Advances in Difference Equations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Difference Equations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Rose, F.: Meetings that changed the world: Paris 1951: The birth of CERN. Nature. 455, 174–175 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bier, E., De Robertis, E.M.: EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning. Science. 348, aaa5838 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal, T., Schu, P., Medigeshi, G.R.: Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle. Sci. Rep. 3, 1813 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Treydte, K.S., Schleser, G.H., Helle, G., Frank, D.C., Winiger, M., Haug, G.H., Esper, J.: The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature. 440, 1179–1182 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willatzen, M., Lew Yan Voon, L.C.: Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2011)
An edited book
Bhola, P., Raguram, A. eds: Ethical Issues in Counselling and Psychotherapy Practice: Walking the Line. Springer, Singapore (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, K., Wen, Z., Du, B., Song, G.: A Multiple-Indicators Approach to Monitoring Urban Sustainable Development. In: Carreiro, M.M., Song, Y.-C., and Wu, J. (eds.) Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspectives. pp. 35–52. Springer, New York, NY (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Difference Equations.

Blog post
Fang, J.: NASA Just Emailed A Wrench To The International Space Station,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Combined Fund Update. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco, R.: Latinas attainment of higher education: What factors contribute to their success?, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Difference Equations
AbbreviationAdv. Differ. Equ.
ISSN (online)1687-1847
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory
Applied Mathematics

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