How to format your references using the Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature 2011;474:S9-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houk KN, Cheong PH-Y. Computational prediction of small-molecule catalysts. Nature 2008;455:309–13.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bascompte J, Jordano P, Olesen JM. Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance. Science 2006;312:431–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Peruzzo A, Lobino M, Matthews JCF, Matsuda N, Politi A, Poulios K, et al. Quantum walks of correlated photons. Science 2010;329:1500–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayés de Luna A. Clinical Arrhythmology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Earl LM, Timperley H, editors. Professional Learning Conversations: Challenges in Using Evidence for Improvement. vol. 1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Guzzo A, Pugliese A, Rullo A, Saccà D. Intrusion Detection with Hypergraph-Based Attack Models. In: Croitoru M, Rudolph S, Woltran S, Gonzales C, editors. Graph Structures for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Third International Workshop, GKR 2013, Beijing, China, August 3, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 58–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 17 Jokes That Only Smart People Will Really Appreciate. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroad Regulation: Surface Transportation Board’s Oversight Could Benefit From Evidence Better Identifying How Mergers Affect Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC. The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Itzkoff D, Bai M, Goldstein J, Spitznagel E, Hodgman J, Leff A, et al. The One-Page Magazine. New York Times 2012:MM11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Cardiovascular Medicine
AbbreviationTrends Cardiovasc. Med.
ISSN (print)1050-1738
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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