How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2002. Job insecurity. Nature. 419:3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papasaikas, P., and Valcárcel, J. 2012. Evolution. Splicing in 4D. Science. 338:1547–1548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anuar, T. S., Salleh, F. M., and Moktar, N. 2014. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia. Sci. Rep. 4:4101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prud’homme, B., Gompel, N., Rokas, A., Kassner, V. A., Williams, T. M., Yeh, S.-D., et al. 2006. Repeated morphological evolution through cis-regulatory changes in a pleiotropic gene. Nature. 440:1050–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., and Macaire, L. 2012. Digital Color. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baan, W. A., Hagiwara, Y., and Langevelde, H. J. van, eds. 2005. Dense Molecular Gas Around Protostars and in Galactic Nuclei: European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Norrie, M. C. 2011. Desktop, Tabletop or Mobile? In Search Computing: Trends and Developments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. Stefano Ceri and Marco Brambilla. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 46–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Spare Your Health, Budget, And The Planet: Ditch The Palaeodiet. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Commercial Space Launches: FAA Should Update How It Assesses Federal Liability Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutherland, K. A. 2009. The impact of early childhood programs on student achievement.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J. L. 2016. Andrew F. Smith on New York City’s Food Heritage. New York Times. :TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Papasaikas and Valcárcel 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papasaikas and Valcárcel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Prud’homme et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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