How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dearing, A. 2007. Enabling Europe to innovate. Science. 315:344–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrizosa, E., and Mempel, T. R. 2015. Immunology: In the right place at the right time. Nature. 528:205–206.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zenisek, D., Steyer, J. A., and Almers, W. 2000. Transport, capture and exocytosis of single synaptic vesicles at active zones. Nature. 406:849–854.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Heine, M., Groc, L., Frischknecht, R., Béïque, J.-C., Lounis, B., Rumbaugh, G., et al. 2008. Surface mobility of postsynaptic AMPARs tunes synaptic transmission. Science. 320:201–205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb, R. W. 2011. Sovereign Debt. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Milano, G., and Grasso, A., eds. 2014. Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Craven, M. P., Selvarajah, K., Miles, R., Schnädelbach, H., Massey, A., Vedhara, K., et al. 2013. User Requirements for the Development of Smartphone Self-reporting Applications in Healthcare. In Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ed. Masaaki Kurosu. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Brewery Has Created Six-Pack Holders That Can Be Eaten By Marine Life. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alalshaikh, S. A. 2017. Leadership Styles in Saudi Arabian Universities: Comparison Based on Educational Background.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. 2017. With the Security Team At a Las Vegas Casino. New York Times. :A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dearing 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dearing 2007; Carrizosa and Mempel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrizosa and Mempel 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Heine et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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