How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher, D. E. 2000. Secret to marital bliss? Science. 290:936b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ueba, H., and Wolf, M. 2005. Chemistry. Lateral hopping requires molecular rocking. Science. 310:1774–1775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cincotta, R. P., Wisnewski, J., and Engelman, R. 2000. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots. Nature. 404:990–992.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hsieh, Y.-D., Iyonaga, Y., Sakaguchi, Y., Yokoyama, S., Inaba, H., Minoshima, K., et al. 2014. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs. Sci. Rep. 4:3816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl, B., Herrenknecht, M., Maidl, U., and Wehrmeyer, G. 2011. Maschineller Tunnelbau im Schildvortrieb. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kirchner, B., ed. 2010. Ionic Liquids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pérez, J. P. A., Pueyo, S. C., and López, B. C. 2011. Conclusions. In Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers, eds. Santiago Celma Pueyo and Belén Calvo López. New York, NY: Springer, p. 117–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Galactic “Hot-Dog-Eating Competition” Lasts Hundreds Of Millions Of Years. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Remains Behind Schedule. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, E. R. 2015. Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wray, J. 2014. I Am the Real Nick Cave. New York Times. :MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fisher 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Fisher 2000; Ueba and Wolf 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ueba and Wolf 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cincotta, Wisnewski, and Engelman 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hsieh et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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