How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S. 2013. Mood disorders: the dark night. Nature. 497:S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson, R., and Pauly, D. 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature. 414:534–536.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakravarty, S., Kee, H.-Y., and Völker, K. 2004. An explanation for a universality of transition temperatures in families of copper oxide superconductors. Nature. 428:53–55.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van Rossum, D. B., Patterson, R. L., Sharma, S., Barrow, R. K., Kornberg, M., Gill, D. L., et al. 2005. Phospholipase Cgamma1 controls surface expression of TRPC3 through an intermolecular PH domain. Nature. 434:99–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanbésien, O. 2012. Artificial Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Borwein, J. M. 2011. An Introduction to Modern Mathematical Computing: With MapleTM. ed. Matthew P. Skerritt. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Richter, S. 2012. Pater patriae sinensis. The Discovery of Patriarchal Rule in China and Its Significance for German Theories of State in the Eighteenth Century. In Structures on the Move: Technologies of Governance in Transcultural Encounter, Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context, eds. Antje Flüchter and Susan Richter. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, p. 61–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Near Earth And Far Away, It’s Been An Exciting Year In Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Overhead Costs: Unallowable Costs Charged by Rockwell Corporation, Rocketdyne Division. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jeffries, R. E. 2010. An NMR-compatible bioartificial liver for metabolomic investigation of drug action.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R., and Nechepurenko, I. 2017. U.S. Is Warned After It Downs Syrian Fighter. New York Times. :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt 2013; Watson and Pauly 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Pauly 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (van Rossum et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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