How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. 2000. Laying a firm foundation for interdisciplinary research endeavours. Nature. 406:107–108.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn, T. M., and Duncan, R. P. 2001. Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature. 414:195–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nabel, G. J., Wei, C.-J., and Ledgerwood, J. E. 2011. Vaccinate for the next H2N2 pandemic now. Nature. 471:157–158.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang, X.-F., Feng, Y., Chen, Y., Gao, B. L., and Han, B.-H. 2014. A meta-analysis of olanzapine for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Sci. Rep. 4:4813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz, H. R., Porretta, S., and Silcher, M. 2008. Concept Research in Food Product Design and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Martinez, J. E., ed. 2011. A Performatory Approach to Teaching, Learning and Technology. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Itterheim, S., and Löw, A. 2011. Your First Game. In Learn cocos2D Game Development with iOS 5, ed. Andreas Löw. Berkeley, CA: Apress, p. 81–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016. SpaceX Will Fly A Reusable Rocket For The First Time Later This Year. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Perkins Student Loans: Options That Could Make the Program More Financially Independent. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar, M. D. 2012. Wagner domesticated, Wagner democratized: The parlor reception of Musikdrama.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. 2015. Art Rooted in Matters of the Heart and the Mind. New York Times. :CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2000; Blackburn and Duncan 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blackburn and Duncan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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