How to format your references using the Phytopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yayanos, A. A. 2002. Are cells viable at gigapascal pressures? Science. 297:295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman, M. R., and Choi, B. C. 2001. Advances in magnetic microscopy. Science. 294:1484–1488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burslem, D. F., Garwood, N. C., and Thomas, S. C. 2001. Ecology. Tropical forest diversity--the plot thickens. Science. 291:606–607.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Afyon, S., Krumeich, F., Mensing, C., Borgschulte, A., and Nesper, R. 2014. New high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries: vanadate-borate glasses. Sci. Rep. 4:7113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A. 2005. Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mark, D. 2015. More iPhone Development with Swift: Exploring the iOS SDK. eds. Jayant Varma, Jeff LaMarche, Alex Horovitz, and Kevin Kim. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Bai, Y., Han, X., and Prince, J. L. 2015. Geometric Deformable Models. In Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research, eds. Nikos Paragios, James Duncan, and Nicholas Ayache. Boston, MA: Springer US, p. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Dolphin Study Suggests Saturated Fat Could Help Prevent Diabetes. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Telecommunications: Concerns Regarding the Structure and FCC’s Management of the E-Rate Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angervil, G. 2017. Administrative Discretion in Public Policy Implementation: The Case of No Child Left Behind (NCLB).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2005. Supreme Court to Determine Fate of Business Tax Credits. New York Times. :C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yayanos 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Yayanos 2002; Freeman and Choi 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freeman and Choi 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Afyon et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytopathology
ISSN (print)0031-949X
ISSN (online)1943-7684
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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