How to format your references using the Immuno-Oncology Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immuno-Oncology Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi E. Neuroscience. Monarchs check clock to chart migration route. Science 2003;300:1216–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hollowed AB, Sundby S. Ecology. Change is coming to the northern oceans. Science 2014;344:1084–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brosco V, Ying Z-J, Lorenzana J. Exact exchange-correlation potential of an ionic Hubbard model with a free surface. Sci Rep 2013;3:2172.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu T, Liu X, Spring DR, Qian X, Cui J, Xu Z. Quantitatively mapping cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information via a designed PET fluorescent probe. Sci Rep 2014;4:5418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman E. Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Johann A, Kruse H-P, Rupp F, Schmitz S, editors. Recent Trends in Dynamical Systems: Proceedings of a Conference in Honor of Jürgen Scheurle. vol. 35. Basel: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamilton AM, Foster PJ. Imaging Experimental Brain Metastases. In: Palmieri D, editor. Central Nervous System Metastasis, the Biological Basis and Clinical Considerations, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 69–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immuno-Oncology Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Finland To Bury Its Nuclear Waste For 100,000 Years. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Training Partnership Act: Labor Title IV Initiatives Could Improve Relations With Native Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez C. A Policy Analysis: Assembly Bill 1421 or Laura’s Law. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack K. Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times 2011:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmuno-Oncology Technology
ISSN (print)2590-0188

Other styles