How to format your references using the Case Studies in Fire Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Fire Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Nusse, Cancer. Converging on beta-catenin in Wilms tumor, Science. 316 (2007) 988–989.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.G. Vasquez, A.C. Martin, Cell biology: Death drags down the neighbourhood, Nature. 518 (2015) 171–173.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Letinic, R. Zoncu, P. Rakic, Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex, Nature. 417 (2002) 645–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.S. Lo, L. Duggan, N.C. Emre, R. Belotserkovskya, W.S. Lane, R. Shiekhattar, S.L. Berger, Snf1--a histone kinase that works in concert with the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 to regulate transcription, Science. 293 (2001) 1142–1146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Wang, Q. Wang, Body Area Communications, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2012.
An edited book
G. Einav, ed., The New World of Transitioned Media: Digital Realignment and Industry Transformation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Thakuriah, D.G. Geers, Conclusions, in: D.G. Geers (Ed.), Transportation and Information: Trends in Technology and Policy, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 97–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Fire Safety.

Blog post
J. Fang, Male Worm Brains are Wired to Choose Sex Over Food, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act: Information on Planned Changes to State Performance Reporting and Related Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.A. Hrivnak, Extending a model of leader -member exchange development: Individual and dyadic effects of personality, similarity and liking, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Republicans Re-Think “Family Values” Focus, New York Times. (1992) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Fire Safety
AbbreviationCase Stud. Fire Saf.
ISSN (print)2214-398X

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