How to format your references using the Case Studies in Fire Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Fire Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Buckingham, Genomic mergers, Nature. 425 (2003) 213.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.J. Schoelkopf, S.M. Girvin, Wiring up quantum systems, Nature. 451 (2008) 664–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Song, C.F. Stevens, F.H. Gage, Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells, Nature. 417 (2002) 39–44.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Pellegrini, D.S. Yu, T. Lo, S. Anand, M. Lee, T.L. Blundell, A.R. Venkitaraman, Insights into DNA recombination from the structure of a RAD51-BRCA2 complex, Nature. 420 (2002) 287–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Bonald, M. Feuillet, Network Performance Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
H.K. Manji, C.A. Zarate Jr., eds., Behavioral Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder and its Treatment, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-I. Ao, Hybrid Intelligent Regressions with Neural Network and Fuzzy Clustering, in: S.-I. Ao, B. Rieger, S.-S. Chen (Eds.), Advances in Computational Algorithms and Data Analysis, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Fire Safety.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Dolphins Have A Magnetic Sense, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Social Security Administration: Cases of Federal Employees and Transportation Drivers and Owners Who Fraudulently and/or Improperly Received SSA Benefits, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Lizarraga, Effects of large inedible particles on the feeding performance of echinodem larvae, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Slow Down and Hide Your Wallet: Traffic Police Ahead, New York Times. (2006) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Fire Safety
AbbreviationCase Stud. Fire Saf.
ISSN (print)2214-398X

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