How to format your references using the Traumatology: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traumatology: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2002). Silicon dreams in the biology lab. Nature, 417(6892), 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nilsen, T. W., & Graveley, B. R. (2010). Expansion of the eukaryotic proteome by alternative splicing. Nature, 463(7280), 457–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteus, C., Freitas, C., & Grutzendler, J. (2014). Perturbed neural activity disrupts cerebral angiogenesis during a postnatal critical period. Nature, 505(7483), 407–411.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, X., Zhu, J., Man, Z., Ao, Y., & Chen, H. (2014). Investigation on the structure and upconversion fluorescence of Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped fluorapatite crystals for potential biomedical applications. Scientific Reports, 4, 4446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner, S., & Birley, S. (2010). Blogging for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Kamat, R. K. (2009). Unleash the System On Chip using FPGAs and Handel C (S. A. Shinde & V. G. Shelake, Eds.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogryczak, W. (2008). WOWA Enhancement of the Preference Modeling in the Reference Point Method. In V. Torra & Y. Narukawa (Eds.), Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 38–49). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traumatology: An International Journal.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 11). How “Death Stars” wipe out potential planets. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Job Corps: High Costs and Mixed Results Raise Questions About Program’s Effectiveness (HEHS-95-180). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winer, E. J. (2010). Elementary School Consolidation and Reconfiguration: An Autoethnographic Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
JULIA C. MEAD; Linda Saslow contributed reporting for this article. (2006, April 30). A Grieving Family Questions a Police Policy. New York Times, 14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2002; Nilsen & Graveley, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nilsen & Graveley, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Whiteus et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraumatology: An International Journal
AbbreviationTraumatology (Tallahass. Fla.)
ISSN (online)1085-9373
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Nursing

Other styles