How to format your references using the BMC Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Noonan D. Language: Lost in translation. Nature. 2014;508:S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wu Z, Curtin WA. The origins of high hardening and low ductility in magnesium. Nature. 2015;526:62–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wu DW-L, Bischof WF, Kingstone A. Looking while eating: the importance of social context to social attention. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang J-B, Cai Z-C, Zhu T-B, Yang W-Y, Müller C. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sallaberry C. Geographical Information Retrieval in Textual Corpora. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Neiger D. Value-Focused Business Process Engineering : a Systems Approach: with Applications to Human Resource Management. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ueno K, Fukasawa Y, Morihata A, Ohori A. The Essence of Ruby. In: Garrigue J, editor. Programming Languages and Systems: 12th Asian Symposium, APLAS 2014, Singapore, Singapore, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 78–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Insects Are Helping Us Develop The Future Of Hearing Aids. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Addington LM. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Craig S, Chen DW. Trump in New York: Deep Roots, but Little Sway. New York Times. 2016;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Emerg. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-227X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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