How to format your references using the BMC Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jan E. Molecular biology: signals across domains of life. Nature. 2015;519:40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haushofer J, Fehr E. On the psychology of poverty. Science. 2014;344:862–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bazzini AA, Lee MT, Giraldez AJ. Ribosome profiling shows that miR-430 reduces translation before causing mRNA decay in zebrafish. Science. 2012;336:233–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Murray DC, Haile J, Dortch J, White NE, Haouchar D, Bellgard MI, et al. Scrapheap challenge: a novel bulk-bone metabarcoding method to investigate ancient DNA in faunal assemblages. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pagliaro M. Nano-Age. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
1. Sadewasser S, Glatzel T, editors. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Measuring and Compensating Electrostatic Forces. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Irving AJ, McDonald NA, Harkany T. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors: Molecular Biology, Second Messenger Coupling and Polarized Trafficking in Neurons. In: Köfalvi A, editor. Cannabinoids and the Brain. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Magnetic Stimulation To The Brain Can Make You More Horny. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/magnetic-stimulation-brain-can-make-you-more-horny/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Assessment of the Explanation That Immigration and Customs Enforcement Provided for Its Subsequent Transfer from the Spectrum Relocation Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee S. The Influence of Product Involvement and Fan Identification on Response to Team Sponsors’ Products. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sugin L. The Furtive Tax. New York Times. 2013;:SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Emerg. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-227X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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