How to format your references using the BMC Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ciesla FJ. Planetary science. Observing our origins. Science. 2008;319:1488–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Martin SG, St Johnston D. A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior-posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity. Nature. 2003;421:379–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kohl KP, Jones CD, Sekelsky J. Evolution of an MCM complex in flies that promotes meiotic crossovers by blocking BLM helicase. Science. 2012;338:1363–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Brass AL, Dykxhoorn DM, Benita Y, Yan N, Engelman A, Xavier RJ, et al. Identification of host proteins required for HIV infection through a functional genomic screen. Science. 2008;319:921–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dye FJ. Dictionary of Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, and Translational Medicine. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Gao F. Channel Estimation for Physical Layer Network Coding Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Karlsson BF, Furtado AL. Conceptual Model and System for Genre-Focused Interactive Storytelling. In: Pisan Y, Sgouros NM, Marsh T, editors. Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2014: 13th International Conference, ICEC 2014, Sydney, Australia, October 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. 3D-Printed Pathway Helps Nerve Growth. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/3d-printed-nerve-pathways-help-growth-after-injury/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Federal Air Marshal Service Could Benefit from Improved Planning and Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Christian TM. Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Boom Time in Nollywood. New York Times. 2017;:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Emerg. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-227X
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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