How to format your references using the Trauma Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trauma Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Gunawardena, Systems biology. Biological systems theory, Science. 328 (2010) 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
V.R. Krishnaswamy, P.S. Korrapati, Role of dermatopontin in re-epithelialization: implications on keratinocyte migration and proliferation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7385.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Sugawara, F. Kano, M. Murata, Rab2A is a pivotal switch protein that promotes either secretion or ER-associated degradation of (pro)insulin in insulin-secreting cells, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6952.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Vanacore, A.-J.L. Ham, M. Voehler, C.R. Sanders, T.P. Conrads, T.D. Veenstra, K.B. Sharpless, P.E. Dawson, B.G. Hudson, A sulfilimine bond identified in collagen IV, Science. 325 (2009) 1230–1234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Fu, Advanced Modelling Techniques in Structural Design, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
A.J. Dolman, R. Valentini, A. Freibauer, eds., The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
M.B.-D. Bie, R. Roose, F. Coussée, L. Bradt, Learning Democracy in Social Work, in: G. Biesta, M. De Bie, D. Wildemeersch (Eds.), Civic Learning, Democratic Citizenship and the Public Sphere, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trauma Case Reports.

Blog post
K. Evans, 7 Qualities In Women That Men Find Attractive, According To Science, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Cost-Benefit Analysis Used in Support of the Space Shuttle Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Broussard, An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Schwirtz, New York City Jails Take Another Blow: Respected Official Is Stepping Down, New York Times. (2017) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrauma Case Reports
AbbreviationTrauma Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-6440
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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