How to format your references using the Trauma Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trauma Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Triendl, Computerized role models, Nature. 417 (2002) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Lum, H. Clevers, Cell biology. The unusual case of Porcupine, Science. 337 (2012) 922–923.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.E. Canfield, S.W. Poulton, G.M. Narbonne, Late-Neoproterozoic deep-ocean oxygenation and the rise of animal life, Science. 315 (2007) 92–95.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Li, G. Wang, H. Zhu, M. Zhang, X. Zheng, Z. Di, X. Liu, X. Wang, Antibacterial activity of large-area monolayer graphene film manipulated by charge transfer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Wilmshurst, Clinical and Educational Child Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
M.M. Keupp, ed., The Northern Sea Route: A Comprehensive Analysis, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Blažič, L. Herman, A. Božiček, I. Papič, Mathematical Modeling and Control Algorithms of STATCOMs, in: F. Shahnia, S. Rajakaruna, A. Ghosh (Eds.), Static Compensators (STATCOMs) in Power Systems, Springer, Singapore, 2015: pp. 111–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trauma Case Reports.

Blog post
S. Luntz, New Trilobite Species Explains Longstanding Footprint Mystery, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD’s Risk Assessment and Safeguards Management of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research and Development Facilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.C. Griffin, Animal and soul: Animals in Native American mythologies and the individuation process, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Graduation Rates Rise, and Bar Is Raised, New York Times. (2008) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrauma Case Reports
AbbreviationTrauma Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-6440
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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