How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raushel FM. Biochemistry. Not an oxidase, but a peroxidase. Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):943–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jean-Baptiste P, Fourré E. Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge. Nature. 2004 Mar 4;428(6978):36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belevich I, Verkhovsky MI, Wikström M. Proton-coupled electron transfer drives the proton pump of cytochrome c oxidase. Nature. 2006 Apr 6;440(7085):829–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mulugu S, Bai W, Fridy PC, Bastidas RJ, Otto JC, Dollins DE, et al. A conserved family of enzymes that phosphorylate inositol hexakisphosphate. Science. 2007 Apr 6;316(5821):106–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elias H-G. Macromolecules. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
Zolghadri A. Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control and Guidance for Aerospace Vehicles: From Theory to Application. Henry D, Cieslak J, Efimov D, Goupil P, editors. London: Springer; 2014. XVI, 216 p. 126 illus., 75 illus. in color. (Advances in Industrial Control).
A chapter in an edited book
Maurya S, Daniel AK. RBHR: Region-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using AI Technique. In: Das KN, Deep K, Pant M, Bansal JC, Nagar A, editors. Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2014, Volume 2. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. p. 37–52. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Bacteria Could Be The Answer To A Future Without Oil [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review Of Reliability Of The Air Force Personnel Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968 Jul. Report No.: B-164471.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katsky CS. Open Secrets: Congressional Oversight of the CIA in the Early Cold War [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Books by Amie Barrodale, Joy Williams, Hubert Mingarelli and Rikki Ducornet. New York Times. 2016 Jul 24;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Cancer Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0973-1482
ISSN (online)1998-4138
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles