How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith O. Chemistry. Nota bene: know thine enemy. Science. 2001 Nov 9;294(5545):1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasetti C, Vogelstein B. Cancer etiology. Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions. Science. 2015 Jan 2;347(6217):78–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich JA. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003 Mar 20;422(6929):326–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liang Y, Yang J, Yuan X, Qiu W, Zhong Z, Yang J, et al. Polytypism in superhard transition-metal triborides. Sci Rep. 2014 May 27;4:5063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilisoly R. Practical Text Mining with Perl. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Wang W-Y, editor. Codification in International Perspective: Selected Papers from the 2nd IACL Thematic Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XVIII, 374 p. 1 illus. (Ius Comparatum - Global Studies in Comparative Law; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Agassant J-F, Covas JA. An Overview of Polymer Processing Modelling. In: Cueto E, editor. Advances in Material Forming: Esaform 10 years on. Paris: Springer; 2007. p. 37–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Why Do Capuchin Monkeys Cover Themselves In Smelly Substances? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interscholastic Athletics: School Districts Provide Some Assistance to Uninsured Student Athletes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Sep. Report No.: HEHS-00-148.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez Grijalva VM. Biological and physical-chemical methods for treatment of semiconductor manufacturing effluents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pomfret J. Isolating China doesn’t work. New York Times. 2017 Feb 6;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Cancer Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0973-1482
ISSN (online)1998-4138
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles