How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dixon RA. Natural products and plant disease resistance. Nature. 2001 Jun 14;411(6839):843–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser ML, Gehling JG. Paleontology. Old and groovy. Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1646–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plerou V, Gopikrishnan P, Stanley HE. Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature. 2003 Jan 9;421(6919):130.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kitov PI, Sadowska JM, Mulvey G, Armstrong GD, Ling H, Pannu NS, et al. Shiga-like toxins are neutralized by tailored multivalent carbohydrate ligands. Nature. 2000 Feb 10;403(6770):669–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Law H. The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring and Learning. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Kronvang B, Faganeli J, Ogrinc N, editors. The Interactions Between Sediments and Water. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. X, 319 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Asatiani R. The Information Structure and Typological Peculiarities of the Georgian Passive Constructions. In: Bezhanishvili G, Löbner S, Marra V, Richter F, editors. Logic, Language, and Computation: 9th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2011, Kutaisi, Georgia, September 26-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 17–34. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Fang J. Twin Study Shows How Environment Shapes Immune System More Than Genes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Ticketing: Impact of Changes in the Airline Ticket Distribution Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jul. Report No.: GAO-03-749.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang SJ. Adapting Korean Cinderella Folklore as Fairy Tales for Children [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Son of Joseph. New York Times. 2017 Jan 12;C12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Cancer Res. Ther.
ISSN (print)0973-1482
ISSN (online)1998-4138
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles