How to format your references using the Pedagogies: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pedagogies: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boss, A. P. (2000). Star formation. Three’s a crowd. Nature, 405(6785), 405, 407.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz, P. G., & Lerner, R. A. (2002). Completing the circle. Nature, 418(6897), 485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishikawa, H., Ma, Z., & Barber, G. N. (2009). STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature, 461(7265), 788–792.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Viola, L., Fortunato, E. M., Pravia, M. A., Knill, E., Laflamme, R., & Cory, D. G. (2001). Experimental realization of noiseless subsystems for quantum information processing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2059–2063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akivis, M. A., & Goldberg, V. V. (1996). Conformal Differential Geometry and Its Generalizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rothrock, L., & Narayanan, S. (Eds.). (2011). Human-in-the-Loop Simulations: Methods and Practice. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tang, M., Liu, J., & Zhang, G. (2011). Improved Compact Routing Schemes for Power-Law Networks. In E. Altman & W. Shi (Eds.), Network and Parallel Computing: 8th IFIP International Conference, NPC 2011, Changsha, China, October 21-23, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 44–58). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pedagogies: An International Journal.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, March 3). Two Fossil Skulls Discovered In China May Have Belonged To Mysterious Denisovans. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). SBA Loan Monitoring System: Substantial Progress Yet Key Risks and Challenges Remain (T-AIMD-00-113). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkinson, B. (2017). You Got to Pray Just to Make It Today: The Relationship between Disclosure Disconnects, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Atheistic Employees [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Apuzzo, M. (2017, May 9). Trump Fires Comey Amid Russia Inquiry. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boss, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Boss, 2000; Schultz & Lerner, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schultz & Lerner, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ishikawa et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Viola et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePedagogies: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1554-480X
ISSN (online)1554-4818

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