How to format your references using the Transportation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turnbull JE (2011) Chemistry. Getting the farm out of pharma for heparin production. Science 334(6055):462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruocco G, Fratalocchi A (2014) Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits. Sci. Rep. 4:7088.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bortnik J, Thorne RM, Meredith NP (2008) The unexpected origin of plasmaspheric hiss from discrete chorus emissions. Nature 452(7183):62–66.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rotenberg E, Theis W, Horn K, Gille P (2000) Quasicrystalline valence bands in decagonal AlNiCo. Nature 406(6796):602–605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen ZN, Chia MYW (2006) Broadband Planar Antennas (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Wallace TC (2013) Dietary Supplement Regulation in the United States MacKay D, Al-Mondhiry R, Nguyen H, Griffiths JC, eds. (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Verghese K, Carre A (2012) Applying Life Cycle Assessment. Verghese K, Lewis H, Fitzpatrick L, eds. Packaging for Sustainability. (Springer, London), 171–210.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Science.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) MDMA Should Be Studied Not Demonized, Say Researchers. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) The High-Speed Rail Investment Act of 2001 (S. 250) (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdioux L (2015) Predicting deception detection ability based on the concept of self-compassionate personality trait, openness personality structure, and agreeableness personality structure. Doctoral dissertation. (Capella University, Minneapolis, MN).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marchese J (2016) ‘I Just Love What I’m Doing.’ New York Times (December 14).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turnbull 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ruocco and Fratalocchi 2014, Turnbull 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruocco and Fratalocchi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rotenberg et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Science
ISSN (print)0041-1655
ISSN (online)1526-5447

Other styles