How to format your references using the Optics and Laser Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics and Laser Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Gresham, Evolution: Fitness tracking for adapting populations, Nature. 519 (2015) 164–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
O. Ikkala, G. ten Brinke, Functional materials based on self-assembly of polymeric supramolecules, Science. 295 (2002) 2407–2409.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Huang, A. Treisman, H. Pashler, Characterizing the limits of human visual awareness, Science. 317 (2007) 823–825.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.-J. Scholte, K. Ng’habi, J. Kihonda, W. Takken, K. Paaijmans, S. Abdulla, G.F. Killeen, B.G.J. Knols, An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes, Science. 308 (2005) 1641–1642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Caferra, Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
B.S. Yilbas, Laser Pulse Heating of Surfaces and Thermal Stress Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Zou, W. Sun, Human Urine Proteome: A Powerful Source for Clinical Research, in: Y. Gao (Ed.), Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics and Laser Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, Fluffy Little Ducklings Are Capable Of Abstract Thoughts, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Changes Needed in the Tax Laws Governing the Exclusion for Scholarships and Fellowships and the Deduction of Job-Related Educational Expenses, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. Chongkrairatanakul, Foreign-educated nurses, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr, Witness Lays Out Events Ending in Brazen Killing, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics and Laser Technology
AbbreviationOpt. Laser Technol.
ISSN (print)0030-3992
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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