How to format your references using the Optics and Laser Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optics and Laser Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.L. Van Dover, Tighten regulations on deep-sea mining, Nature. 470 (2011) 31–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.A. Kelley, E. Cottrell, Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas, Science. 325 (2009) 605–607.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Chu, D. Reczek, W. Brondyk, Capture-stabilize approach for membrane protein SPR assays, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.-L. Zhang, S. Duan, X.-L. Yang, G. Liang, Y.-H. Huang, X.-Z. Cao, J. Yang, S.-B. Ni, M. Li, Systematic investigation on Cadmium-incorporation in Li₂FeSiO₄/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.I. Good, Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J.-M. Redouté, EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Bhattacharya, Intraamniotic Antigen and Disruption of Human Fetal Growth: A Study from 1978–2002 with Subsequent Follow Up, in: N. Bhattacharya, P.G. Stubblefield (Eds.), Human Fetal Growth and Development: First and Second Trimesters, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 19–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optics and Laser Technology.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Why Alzheimer’s Research Is Failing To Hit Treatment Targets, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of Computers at Naval Laboratories, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Safi Samghabadi, Kinematic analysis and control design of a retractable wheel mechanism using optimal control theory, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Davidson, God Save the British Economy, New York Times. (2012) MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptics and Laser Technology
AbbreviationOpt. Laser Technol.
ISSN (print)0030-3992
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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