How to format your references using the Applied Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Desiraju GR (2012) Policy: Bold strategies for Indian science. Nature 484:159–160
A journal article with 2 authors
Butko VY, Adams PW (2001) Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator. Nature 409:161–164
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim J-H, Yoneya M, Yokoyama H (2002) Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment. Nature 420:159–162
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gabelli J, Fève G, Berroir J-M, et al (2006) Violation of Kirchhoff’s laws for a coherent RC circuit. Science 313:499–502

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann RB, Lehmann HD (2015) Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Tamin MN (2014) Solder Joint Reliability Assessment: Finite Element Simulation Methodology. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Robbins CA (2015) Case 15: Correction of Post-infectious Partial Proximal Tibia Growth Arrest with Taylor Spatial Frame in a Child. In: Rozbruch SR, Hamdy RC (eds) Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Surgery Case Atlas: Pediatric Deformity. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 107–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Water Science.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Cassini Begins Its Ring-Grazing Orbits Of Saturn. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Serious Shortcomings in FAA’s Training Program Must Be Remedied. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Datta A (2017) Speech Synthesis Using Unsupervised Learning. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2009) For the Stressed Business Owner, a Range of Pursuits to Revive the Spirit. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Desiraju 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Butko and Adams 2001; Desiraju 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butko and Adams 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabelli et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Water Science
AbbreviationAppl. Water Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5487
ISSN (online)2190-5495
ScopeWater Science and Technology

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