How to format your references using the Applied Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp M (2002) Science in culture. Nature 420:364
A journal article with 2 authors
Vijg J, Campisi J (2008) Puzzles, promises and a cure for ageing. Nature 454:1065–1071
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelli DG, Farell B, Moore DC (2003) The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature 423:752–756
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Krumholz MR, Klein RI, McKee CF, et al (2009) The formation of massive star systems by accretion. Science 323:754–757

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu P (2005) Wideband TDD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Cortajarena AL, Grove TZ (eds) (2016) Protein-based Engineered Nanostructures. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Raschke C, Elsner P (2010) Skin Aging: A Brief Summary of Characteristic Changes. In: Farage MA, Miller KW, Maibach HI (eds) Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Water Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Outstanding Jurassic Fossils Rediscovered After More Than 100 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Job Training: Effect of Under-Reported Unemployment Data on Grant Funding to Rural Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mace JY (2014) Rupturing the “reality” of reality TV: Contemporary video artists examining the discursive effects of the reality TV phenomenon. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) Alcoholism in America. New York Times BR4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp 2002; Vijg and Campisi 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vijg and Campisi 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Krumholz et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Water Science
AbbreviationAppl. Water Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5487
ISSN (online)2190-5495
ScopeWater Science and Technology

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