How to format your references using the Applied Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hampton SE (2013) Ecology. Understanding lakes near and far. Science 342:815–816
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehta MP, Baross JA (2006) Nitrogen fixation at 92 degrees C by a hydrothermal vent archaeon. Science 314:1783–1786
A journal article with 3 authors
Grubb PJ, Coomes DA, Metcalfe DJ (2005) Comment on “A brief history of seed size.” Science 310:783; author reply 783
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Giraudo CG, Garcia-Diaz A, Eng WS, et al (2009) Alternative zippering as an on-off switch for SNARE-mediated fusion. Science 323:512–516

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hasslacher C, Böhm S (2005) Diabetes and the Kidney. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bouchon-Meunier B, Magdalena L, Ojeda-Aciego M, et al (eds) (2010) Foundations of Reasoning under Uncertainty. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Marková H, Kopecký M, Suchánek R (2016) The Process of Budgeting and Issues of Indebtedness in the Czech Republic. In: Morrison FL (ed) Fiscal Rules - Limits on Governmental Deficits and Debt. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Water Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Carnivorous Plant’s Jam-Packed Genome Intrigues Scientists. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Commercial Motor Carriers: More Could Be Done to Determine Impact of Excessive Loading and Unloading Wait Times on Hours of Service Violations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dallara A (2017) The “femme-homme” of the French Revolution: Gender boundaries and masculinization. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Still Wild For Animal Prints. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hampton 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mehta and Baross 2006; Hampton 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mehta and Baross 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Giraudo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Water Science
AbbreviationAppl. Water Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5487
ISSN (online)2190-5495
ScopeWater Science and Technology

Other styles