How to format your references using the Applied Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lill R (2009) Function and biogenesis of iron-sulphur proteins. Nature 460:831–838
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan MI, Mitchell TM (2015) Machine learning: Trends, perspectives, and prospects. Science 349:255–260
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz W, O’Neill BC, Scherbov S (2003) Demographics. Europe’s population at a turning point. Science 299:1991–1992
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pomeranz Krummel DA, Oubridge C, Leung AKW, et al (2009) Crystal structure of human spliceosomal U1 snRNP at 5.5 A resolution. Nature 458:475–480

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI (2005) Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and Microsoft Office Excel ®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kyriakides E, Polycarpou M (eds) (2015) Intelligent Monitoring, Control, and Security of Critical Infrastructure Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Füss R, Kaiser DG, Adams Z (2016) Value at Risk, GARCH Modelling and the Forecasting of Hedge Fund Return Volatility. In: Satchell S (ed) Derivatives and Hedge Funds. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 91–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Water Science.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Amateur Treasure Hunters Find UK’s Oldest Iron Age Gold. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) [Question Concerning Protest Under Army IFB for Dependent School Transportation]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle LL (2014) Relationship between managerial responsiveness, managerial approachability, and prosocial voice among acute-care registered nurses. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver N (2012) Let’s Play Medalball! New York Times MM40

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lill 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lill 2009; Jordan and Mitchell 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jordan and Mitchell 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pomeranz Krummel et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Water Science
AbbreviationAppl. Water Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5487
ISSN (online)2190-5495
ScopeWater Science and Technology

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