How to format your references using the Applied Water Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Water Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matthews KR (2011) Controlling and coordinating development in vector-transmitted parasites. Science 331:1149–1153
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark LA, Pompei K (2010) Winner of Science Prize for Online Resources in Education. Making genetics easy to understand. Science 327:538–539
A journal article with 3 authors
Solter LF, Kyei-Poku GK, Johny S (2013) Comment on “Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors.” Science 341:1342
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Riller U, Poelchau MH, Rae ASP, et al (2018) Rock fluidization during peak-ring formation of large impact structures. Nature 562:511–518

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton G (2014) Microbiology of Drinking Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Spiess W (2008) Conflict Prevention in Project Management: Strategies, Methods, Checklists, and Case Studies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Badman SV, Branduardi-Raymont G, Galand M, et al (2016) Auroral Processes at the Giant Planets: Energy Deposition, Emission Mechanisms, Morphology and Spectra. In: Szego K, Achilleos N, Arridge C, et al. (eds) The Magnetodiscs and Aurorae of Giant Planets. Springer, New York, NY, pp 99–179

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Water Science.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Medical And Recreational Marijuana Approved In Several US States. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Transmittal of Comptroller General Decision on the Transportation Security Administration’s Time and Attendance Approval System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuite J (2006) Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Overview; Bush Subtly Avoids Direct Attack Against Clinton on the Draft Issue. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matthews 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Stark and Pompei 2010; Matthews 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stark and Pompei 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Riller et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Water Science
AbbreviationAppl. Water Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5487
ISSN (online)2190-5495
ScopeWater Science and Technology

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