How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jha A. Mass-spectrometry experience is in demand. Nature 2001; 410: 129–130.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tao Z-Y, Fan Y-X. Orthogonality breaking induces extraordinary single-mode transparency in an elaborate waveguide with wall corrugations. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 7092.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Winkler W, Nahvi A, Breaker RR. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature 2002; 419: 952–956.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Lim J, Crespo-Barreto J, Jafar-Nejad P et al. Opposing effects of polyglutamine expansion on native protein complexes contribute to SCA1. Nature 2008; 452: 713–718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rees PA. An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Luna A. Diffusion MRI Outside the Brain: A Case-Based Review and Clinical Applications. (Ribes R, Soto JA, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dörfler P, Sick M, Coutu A. Cavitation-Related Phenomena. In: Sick M, Coutu A, eds. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting. London: Springer, 2013, pp.129–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. First Meteor Shower Of The Year Peaks This Weekend. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Super Collider--National Security Benefits, Similar Projects, and Cost. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Panteleyeva NB. Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Use Any Color Shopping Bag, So Long as It’s Red. New York Times. July 28, 2002:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)2155-384X
ScopeGastroenterology

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