How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wootton JT. Local interactions predict large-scale pattern in empirically derived cellular automata. Nature 2001; 413: 841–844.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tao Z-Y, Fan Y-X. Orthogonality breaking induces extraordinary single-mode transparency in an elaborate waveguide with wall corrugations. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 7092.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Turney CSM, Roberts RG, Jacobs Z. Archaeology: progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating. Nature 2006; 443: E3; discussion E4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Goswami BN, Venugopal V, Sengupta D et al. Increasing trend of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment. Science 2006; 314: 1442–1445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Calloway J. Work Like You’re Showing Off! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Estey EH. Acute Leukemias. (Faderl SH, Kantarjian HM, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chatterjee S, Sarkar P. Selective-Identity Model. In: Sarkar P, ed. Identity-Based Encryption. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2011, pp.63–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Biggest Scientific Hoaxes of 2014. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Schools: Important Steps Taken to Continue Reform Efforts, But Enhanced Planning Could Improve Implementation and Sustainability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Martinez AM. Moving in foster care: Voices of adults who experienced multiple foster care placements in childhood. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Traub J. Make Poland Great Again. New York Times. November 2, 2016:MM43.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)2155-384X

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