How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grossman JN. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Enhanced: A Meteorite Falls on Ice. Science 2000; 290: 283–285.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hightower M, Pierce SA. The energy challenge. Nature 2008; 452: 285–286.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Foote AD, Osborne RW, Hoelzel AR. Environment: whale-call response to masking boat noise. Nature 2004; 428: 910.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Oikawa H, Suzuki Y, Saito M et al. Microsecond dynamics of an unfolded protein by a line confocal tracking of single molecule fluorescence. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3: 2151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Guochao Q, Shuyu T, Min Z et al. The Environment and Landscape in Motorway Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Vlodaver Z, Wilson RF, Garry DJ eds. Coronary Heart Disease: Clinical, Pathological, Imaging, and Molecular Profiles. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Reinhartz-Berger I. When Aspect-Orientation Meets Software Product Line Engineering. In: Reinhartz-Berger I, Sturm A, Clark T, et al., eds. Domain Engineering: Product Lines, Languages, and Conceptual Models. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp.83–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Chickens From Hell And Cartwheeling Spiders: The Top 10 New Species 2015. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Equipment: Buying Through GSA’s Office of Technology Plus Stores. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Alsaadi A. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. The Weeknd Remains at No. 1 on the Charts. New York Times. January 30, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)2155-384X

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