How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dudukovic MP. Frontiers in reactor engineering. Science 2009; 325: 698–701.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Velicogna I, Wahr J. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science 2006; 311: 1754–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lohmann C, Myhr KL, Wong ROL. Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature 2002; 418: 177–181.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Rokas A, Williams BL, King N et al. Genome-scale approaches to resolving incongruence in molecular phylogenies. Nature 2003; 425: 798–804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Minei I, Lucek J. MPLS-Enabled Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Barkalov A. Logic Synthesis for FPGA-Based Finite State Machines. (Titarenko L, Kolopienczyk M, Mielcarek K, et al., eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Trayanova N, Plank G. Bidomain Model of Defibrillation. In: Efimov IR, Kroll MW, Tchou PJ, eds. Cardiac Bioelectric Therapy: Mechanisms and Practical Implications. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009, pp.85–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. A Glass Of Wine A Day May Help Keep The Heart Disease Away - But Only For 15% Of Us. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Foresight Issues Challenge DOT’s Efforts to Assess and Respond to New Technology-Based Trends. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ahlert D. Application of Graph Theoretic Clustering on Some Biomedical Data Sets. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Cowen T. A Slowdown That Silicon Valley Doesn’t Believe. New York Times. March 4, 2016:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)2155-384X

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