How to format your references using the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D. Nuts and Bolts. Reference Points. Nature, Vol. 428, No. 6978, 2004, p. 104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lerner, J., and J. Tirole. Intellectual Property. A Better Route to Tech Standards. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 343, No. 6174, 2014, pp. 972–973.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledingham, K. W. D., P. McKenna, and R. P. Singhal. Applications for Nuclear Phenomena Generated by Ultra-Intense Lasers. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 300, No. 5622, 2003, pp. 1107–1111.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dello Ioio, R., K. Nakamura, L. Moubayidin, S. Perilli, M. Taniguchi, M. T. Morita, T. Aoyama, P. Costantino, and S. Sabatini. A Genetic Framework for the Control of Cell Division and Differentiation in the Root Meristem. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 322, No. 5906, 2008, pp. 1380–1384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, L. A., and A. M. Pagliaro. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Moniuszko, A. PET and PET/CT Study Guide: A Review for Passing the PET Specialty Exam. Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Regan, G., D. Flood, and F. M. Caffery. The Development and Validation of a Roadmap for Traceability. In Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 15th International Conference, SPICE 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 16-17, 2015. Proceedings (T. Rout, R. V. O’Connor, and A. Dorling, eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Blog post
Luntz, S. World’s Oldest Ground Axe Discovered In Australia. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Transit Administration: Bus Rapid Transit Offers Communities a Flexible Mass Transit Option. Publication GAO-03-729T. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nauman, T. Digital Soil-Landscape Classification for Soil Survey Using ASTER Satellite and Digital Elevation Data in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Hall Quits ‘Today’ and NBC With Kelly Waiting Offstage. New York Times, Feb 01, 2017, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
AbbreviationTransp. Res. Rec.
ISSN (print)0361-1981
ISSN (online)2169-4052
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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