How to format your references using the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kärre, K. Immunology. A Perfect Mismatch. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 295, No. 5562, 2002, pp. 2029–2031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huebsch, N., and D. J. Mooney. Inspiration and Application in the Evolution of Biomaterials. Nature, Vol. 462, No. 7272, 2009, pp. 426–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyd, R. W., K. W. C. Chan, and M. N. O’Sullivan. Physics. Quantum Weirdness in the Lab. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 317, No. 5846, 2007, pp. 1874–1875.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, J., P. Dak, Y. Lee, H. Park, W. Choi, M. A. Alam, and S. Kim. Two-Dimensional Layered MoS₂ Biosensors Enable Highly Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules. Scientific reports, Vol. 4, 2014, p. 7352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojar, R. M. Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Guéron, J., and J. Lecarme, Eds. Time and Modality. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Sierksma, G., and D. Ghosh. Minimum Spanning Trees. In Networks in Action: Text and Computer Exercises in Network Optimization (D. Ghosh, ed.), Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 37–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Physicists Forge Impossible Molecule That Chemists Failed To Make. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School District Claim to Department of Air Force. Publication B-193864. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Correa, L. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight and Obese Status among Adolescents. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. Trump Picks an Overseer of Derivatives Trading. New York Times, Mar 15, 2017, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
AbbreviationTransp. Res. Rec.
ISSN (print)0361-1981
ISSN (online)2169-4052
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles