How to format your references using the NursingPlus Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NursingPlus Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2003). NASA: trawling through the wreckage. Nature, 426(6968), 754–755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolf, D., & Goff, S. P. (2009). Embryonic stem cells use ZFP809 to silence retroviral DNAs. Nature, 458(7242), 1201–1204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arp, G., Reimer, A., & Reitner, J. (2001). Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5522), 1701–1704.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pereira, M., Pfisterer, U., Rylander, D., Torper, O., Lau, S., Lundblad, M., Grealish, S., & Parmar, M. (2014). Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that survive transplantation into the adult rat brain. Scientific Reports, 4, 6330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke, B., Seidenberg, R., & Althoff, M. P. (2005). UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Linkov, I., Wenning, R. J., & Kiker, G. A. (Eds.). (2007). Managing Critical Infrastructure Risks: Decision Tools and Applications for Port Security. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jayatissa, L. P., Kodikara, K. A. S., Dissanayaka, N. P., & Satyanarayana, B. (2016). Post-Tsunami Assessment of Coastal Vegetation, with the View to Protect Coastal Areas from Ocean Surges in Sri Lanka. In V. Santiago-Fandiño, H. Tanaka, & M. Spiske (Eds.), Tsunamis and Earthquakes in Coastal Environments: Significance and Restoration (pp. 47–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NursingPlus Open.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 9). Anemone Eats A Seabird. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Mass Transit: Issues Related to Providing Dedicated Funding for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (GAO-06-516). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jennings, S. (2015). Hiring, promotions, and identity negotiation of female hiring agents in American corporate retail [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2006, August 20). An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times, 14NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2003; Wolf & Goff, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolf & Goff, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Arp et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pereira et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNursingPlus Open
AbbreviationNursingPlus Open
ISSN (print)2352-9008

Other styles