How to format your references using the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Denison R. Worlds of IIF. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):680.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jamison DT, Sandbu ME. Global health. WHO ranking of health system performance. Science. 2001 Aug 31;293(5535):1595–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haince JF, Rouleau M, Poirier GG. Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science. 2006 Jun 23;312(5781):1752–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wallraff A, Lukashenko A, Lisenfeld J, Kemp A, Fistul MV, Koval Y, et al. Quantum dynamics of a single vortex. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):155–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake PP, Fabozzi FJ. The Basics of Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Fleer M, Ridgway A, editors. Visual Methodologies and Digital Tools for Researching with Young Children: Transforming Visuality. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. VI, 238 p. 53 illus., 47 illus. in color. (International perspectives on early childhood education and development; vol. 10).
A chapter in an edited book
Del Rio A, Da Costa FB. Molecular Approaches to Explore Natural and Food-Compound Modulators in Cancer Epigenetics and Metabolism. In: Martinez-Mayorga K, Medina-Franco JL, editors. Foodinformatics: Applications of Chemical Information to Food Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 131–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dentomaxillofacial Radiology.

Blog post
Carpineti C. Watch This Mother Grey Whale Defend Her Calf From Attacking Orcas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Schools: Audit Confirms Reasonableness of Enrollment Count, but Report’s Presentation Is Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-99-66R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rehan TY. Analysis of Life-Cycle Cost, Properties, and Field Performance of Parking Lot Pavements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. COURT TO WEIGH RACE AS A FACTOR IN SCHOOL ROLLS. New York Times. 2006 Jun 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDentomaxillofacial Radiology
AbbreviationDentomaxillofac. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0250-832X
ISSN (online)1476-542X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
General Dentistry

Other styles