How to format your references using the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weyer S. Geochemistry. What drives iron isotope fractionation in magma? Science. 2008 Jun 20;320(5883):1600–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson KH, Orvig C. Boon and bane of metal ions in medicine. Science. 2003 May 9;300(5621):936–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambur JB, Novet T, Parkinson BA. Multiple exciton collection in a sensitized photovoltaic system. Science. 2010 Oct 1;330(6000):63–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ha E-M, Oh C-T, Bae YS, Lee W-J. A direct role for dual oxidase in Drosophila gut immunity. Science. 2005 Nov 4;310(5749):847–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinyer A. Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Ionescu RT. Knowledge Transfer between Computer Vision and Text Mining: Similarity-based Learning Approaches. Popescu M, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXIV, 250 p. 42 illus., 33 illus. in color. (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition).
A chapter in an edited book
Jögi A. Tumour Hypoxia and the Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors: Key Players in Cancer Progression and Metastasis. In: Mazurek S, Shoshan M, editors. Tumor Cell Metabolism: Pathways, Regulation and Biology. Vienna: Springer; 2015. p. 65–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dentomaxillofacial Radiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Robot Bees Vs Real Bees – Why Tiny Drones Can’t Compete With The Real Thing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Food Assistance: Computerized Information Matching Could Reduce Fraud and Abuse in the Food Stamp Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Aug. Report No.: T-RCED-98-254.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz JA. New graduate nurses’ experiences of what accounts for their lack of professional confidence during their first year of practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Digital Security Provider Raises $100 Million to Tackle Booming Market. New York Times. 2017 May 17;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDentomaxillofacial Radiology
AbbreviationDentomaxillofac. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0250-832X
ISSN (online)1476-542X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
General Dentistry

Other styles