How to format your references using the Transportation in Developing Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation in Developing Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murray TH (2014) Genetics. Stirring the simmering “designer baby” pot. Science 343:1208–1210
A journal article with 2 authors
Veigel C, Schmidt CF (2009) Biochemistry. Friction in motor proteins. Science 325:826–827
A journal article with 3 authors
Bida TA, Killen RM, Morgan TH (2000) Discovery of calcium in Mercury’s atmosphere. Nature 404:159–161
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McNerny DQ, Viswanath B, Copic D, et al (2014) Direct fabrication of graphene on SiO2 enabled by thin film stress engineering. Sci Rep 4:5049

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P (2014) Probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Du R (2013) The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Huang X, Dai L (2015) Chinese Cultural Values in User Experience Design of Kids’ Home Products. In: Rau PLP (ed) Cross-Cultural Design Methods, Practice and Impact: 7th International Conference, CCD 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation in Developing Economies.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) Stimulating The Brain With Electricity May Reduce Bulimia Symptoms. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Study of Guaranteed Student Loan Bankruptcy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA (2010) Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2013) Pork Belly, Yes; Popovers, No. New York Times LI9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation in Developing Economies
AbbreviationTransp. Dev. Econ.
ISSN (print)2199-9287
ISSN (online)2199-9295

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