How to format your references using the Transportation in Developing Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation in Developing Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barker PA (2007) Atmospheric science. The monsoon’s past. Science 316:1295–1296
A journal article with 2 authors
Insel TR, Cuthbert BN (2015) Medicine. Brain disorders? Precisely. Science 348:499–500
A journal article with 3 authors
Dickinson DJ, Nelson WJ, Weis WI (2011) A polarized epithelium organized by beta- and alpha-catenin predates cadherin and metazoan origins. Science 331:1336–1339
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chuine I, Yiou P, Viovy N, et al (2004) Historical phenology: grape ripening as a past climate indicator. Nature 432:289–290

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Chouikha M (2016) Organizational Design for Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sidhu AS, Dillon TS (2009) Biomedical Data and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chesko J, Vedvick T, Reed S (2013) Development of Biophysical Assays to Better Understand Adjuvanted Vaccine Formulation Potency and Stability. In: Singh M (ed) Novel Immune Potentiators and Delivery Technologies for Next Generation Vaccines. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 107–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation in Developing Economies.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Half-Female, Half-Male Cardinal is a Lonely Bird. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Commuter Rail: Potential Impacts and Cost Estimates for the Cancelled Hudson River Tunnel Project. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly EJ (2016) What experiences create and nurture a love of science? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006) Suffolk and Nassau Fight Voting Machine Change. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation in Developing Economies
AbbreviationTransp. Dev. Econ.
ISSN (print)2199-9287
ISSN (online)2199-9295

Other styles