How to format your references using the Transportation in Developing Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation in Developing Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackinnon R (2004) Structural biology. Voltage sensor meets lipid membrane. Science 306:1304–1305
A journal article with 2 authors
Doumy G, DiMauro LF (2008) Chemistry. Interrogating molecules. Science 322:1194–1195
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin J, Yang X, Zheng Y (2014) Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths. Sci Rep 4:6511
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Choi JD, Malim MH (2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418:646–650

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe EH (2014) Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Guo S (2013) Political Science and Chinese Political Studies: The State of the Field. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Timm C (2016) Legitimacy and State-Led Economic Policy in Georgia. In: Brusis M, Ahrens J, Wessel MS (eds) Politics and Legitimacy in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 97–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation in Developing Economies.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Microbial Enzymes “Eat” Cocaine, Could Be Novel Treatment For Abuse. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Recovery Act Education Programs: Survey of School Districts’ Uses of Funds (GAO-11-885SP, September 2011), an E-supplement to GAO-11-804. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best TF (2014) Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wejchert M (2017) Falling Off the Edge. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation in Developing Economies
AbbreviationTransp. Dev. Econ.
ISSN (print)2199-9287
ISSN (online)2199-9295

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