How to format your references using the Transportation in Developing Economies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation in Developing Economies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Souza Pereira R (2000) Yet the path is strewn with needless obstacles. Nature 407:834
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottifredi V, Prives C (2001) Molecular biology. Getting p53 out of the nucleus. Science 292:1851–1852
A journal article with 3 authors
Boisvert CA, Mark-Kurik E, Ahlberg PE (2008) The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits. Nature 456:636–638
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pósfai M, Liu Y-Y, Slotine J-J, Barabási A-L (2013) Effect of correlations on network controllability. Sci Rep 3:1067

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson M (2010) A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Caforio G (2006) Handbook of the Sociology of the Military. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Michalski RS, Wojtusiak J (2007) Generalizing Data in Natural Language. In: Kryszkiewicz M, Peters JF, Rybinski H, Skowron A (eds) Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems Paradigms: International Conference, RSEISP 2007, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation in Developing Economies.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Neanderthal Genes May Not Actually Be That Harmful To Humans. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1968) Research and Development--and the Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz JA (2014) New graduate nurses’ experiences of what accounts for their lack of professional confidence during their first year of practice. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Searcey D (2017) Boko Haram Frees Taken Girls, Nigeria Says. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation in Developing Economies
AbbreviationTransp. Dev. Econ.
ISSN (print)2199-9287
ISSN (online)2199-9295

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