How to format your references using the Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Holmes, Ovarian cancer: beyond resistance, Nature. 527 (2015) S217.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Hammerl, N. Spaldin, Physics. Shedding light on oxide interfaces, Science. 332 (2011) 922–923.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Osta, G.K. Christophides, F.C. Kafatos, Effects of mosquito genes on Plasmodium development, Science. 303 (2004) 2030–2032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Hatano, Y. Ogimoto, N. Ogawa, M. Nakano, S. Ono, Y. Tomioka, K. Miyano, Y. Iwasa, Y. Tokura, Gate control of electronic phases in a quarter-filled manganite, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.J. Stavetski, Managing Hedge Fund Managers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
M. Bertau, H. Offermanns, L. Plass, F. Schmidt, H.-J. Wernicke, eds., Methanol: The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future: Asinger’s Vision Today, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
F. de A.T. de Carvalho, A Clustering Algorithm for Symbolic Interval Data Based on a Single Adaptive Hausdorff Distance, in: P. Brito, G. Cucumel, P. Bertrand, F. de Carvalho (Eds.), Selected Contributions in Data Analysis and Classification, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The ‘Houdini’ Honey Badger … And Other Surprisingly Clever Animals, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Lessons Learned from the Pilot Technology Access Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Albers, One Academic Year Study of Experiences of One Cohort of Graduates from a Midwestern University’s Teacher Education Program, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Witz, As Hurricane Nears Florida, Yankees’ Series With Rays Is Moved to Citi Field, New York Times. (2017) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
AbbreviationPhysica A
ISSN (print)0378-4371
ScopeStatistics and Probability
Condensed Matter Physics

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