How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kress, M. 2012. Modeling armed conflicts. Science 336(6083): 865–869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Einav, L., and Levin, J. 2014. Economics in the age of big data. Science 346(6210): 1243089.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prajeesh, A.G., Ashok, K., and Rao, D.V.B. 2013. Falling monsoon depression frequency: a Gray-Sikka conditions perspective. Sci. Rep. 3: 2989.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thakkar, S., Nanaware-Kharade, N., Celikel, R., Peterson, E.C., and Varughese, K.I. 2014. Affinity improvement of a therapeutic antibody to methamphetamine and amphetamine through structure-based antibody engineering. Sci. Rep. 4: 3673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G. 2010. Wastewater Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nguyen, N.T. (Editor). 2012. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence VII. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Godoy, G., and Jacquemard, F. 2009. Unique Normalization for Shallow TRS. In Rewriting Techniques and Applications: 20th International Conference, RTA 2009 Brasília, Brazil, June 29 - July 1, 2009 Proceedings. Edited by R. Treinen. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014, October 11. Watch A Man See For The First Time In 33 Years, Thanks To His New Bionic Eye. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Depository Institution Regulators Are Making Progress, But Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cross, A. 2017. Tinkering in k-12: an exploratory mixed methods study of makerspaces in schools as an application of constructivist learning. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bogle, J.C. 2017, February 9. Putting Clients Second. New York Times: A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kress 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kress 2012; Einav and Levin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Einav and Levin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Thakkar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
ISSN (print)0706-652X
ISSN (online)1205-7533
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles