How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. 2013. Drug development: A combined effort. Nature 502(7470): S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, Y., and Cao, C. 2014. Research Funding. Demystifying central government R&D spending in China. Science 345(6200): 1006–1008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wise, C., Pawlyn, M., and Braungart, M. 2013. Eco-engineering: Living in a materials world. Nature 494(7436): 172–175.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kubota, K., Yokoyama, Y., Ishikawa, T., Obrochta, S., and Suzuki, A. 2014. Larger CO₂ source at the equatorial Pacific during the last deglaciation. Sci. Rep. 4: 5261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, H. 1988. Integral Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Park, J.-W., Kim, T.-G., and Kim, Y.-B. (Editors). 2007. AsiaSim 2007: Asia Simulation Conference 2007, Seoul, Korea, October 10-12, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Doelitzscher, F., Reich, C., Knahl, M., and Clarke, N. 2013. Understanding Cloud Audits. In Privacy and Security for Cloud Computing. Edited by S. Pearson and G. Yee. Springer, London. pp. 125–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, September 20. China Finally Confirms Their Space Station Is Crashing Towards Earth. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Governance Mechanisms for Implementing Management Controls Need to Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuehling, A.L. 2017. “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., and Clarey, C. 2016, August 17. Tennis; Ex-Champion del Potro Gets Wild Card for U.S. Open. New York Times: B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Maxmen 2013; Sun and Cao 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun and Cao 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kubota et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
ISSN (print)0706-652X
ISSN (online)1205-7533
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles