How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halzen, F. 2007. Neutrino astrophysics experiments beneath the sea and ice. Science 315(5808): 66–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson, A.J.A., and Williams, J.M.J. 2010. Chemistry. The give and take of alcohol activation. Science 329(5992): 635–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nader, K., Schafe, G.E., and Le Doux, J.E. 2000. Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. Nature 406(6797): 722–726.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gambardella, A., Graziosi, P., Bergenti, I., Prezioso, M., Pullini, D., Milita, S., Biscarini, F., and Dediu, V.A. 2014. Surface nanostructures in manganite films. Sci. Rep. 4: 5353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hulin, W., and Jin-Ting, Z. 2006. Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kumar, S., and Snooks, H. (Editors). 2011. Telenursing. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Rai, R., and Regan, L. 2012. Pregnancy Morbidity Associated with Hereditary and Acquired Thrombophilias: Recurrent Miscarriage. In Disorders of Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Pregnancy: A Guide to Management. Edited by H. Cohen and P. O’Brien. Springer, London. pp. 71–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016, July 1. Five Years After Fukushima, What Is It Really Doing To The Oceans? IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. NASA: Major Challenges for Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter, C.M. 2010. Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992, July 21. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; A Changed Gore, With a Firmer Voice. New York Times: A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halzen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Halzen 2007; Watson and Williams 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Williams 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gambardella et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
ISSN (print)0706-652X
ISSN (online)1205-7533
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles