How to format your references using the Transportation Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farmelo G. Dirac’s hidden geometry. Nature 2005;437:323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cao X, Südhof TC. A transcriptionally [correction of transcriptively] active complex of APP with Fe65 and histone acetyltransferase Tip60. Science 2001;293:115–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschuren D, Laird KR, Cumming BF. Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years. Nature 2000;403:410–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Y, Chen X, Xie Y, Li X, Li F, Hou Z. Effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. Sci Rep 2014;4:6339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garton AF. Exploring Cognitive Development: The Child as Problem Solver. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Correia L, Reis LP, Cascalho J, editors. Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 16th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2013, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal, September 9-12, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 8154. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Runyan CN. Essential Competencies of Medical Personnel in Integrated Care Settings. In: O’Donohue WT, James L, editors. The Primary Care Toolkit: Practical Resources for the Integrated Behavioral Care Provider, New York, NY: Springer; 2009, p. 31–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Geotechnics.

Blog post
Luntz S. Eight Exoplanets That Could Support Life Discovered. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation: Issues Associated With the Theft of Stock Used to Create Airline Tickets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brooks BM. Applying Andragogical Principles to Real-Time Embedded Parental Coaching When Helping Their Children with Hearing Loss to Talk. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruckelshaus WD, Reilly WK. Why Obama Is Right on Clean Energy. New York Times 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Geotechnics
ISSN (print)2214-3912
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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