How to format your references using the Transportation Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks TM. Conservation: Mind the gaps. Nature 2014;516:336–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kubatko LS, Pearl DK. Evolution. Seeing the trees in your terrace. Science 2011;333:411–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamas-Linares A, Howell JC, Bouwmeester D. Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature 2001;412:887–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang Y, Shi W, Li X, Ma H. Sensitive detection of ozone by a practical resorufin-based spectroscopic probe with extremely low background signal. Sci Rep 2013;3:2830.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham C. Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Diduch DR, Brunt LM, editors. Sports Hernia and Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Treatment. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerra-Hernández A, Ortíz-Hernández G. Toward BDI Sapient Agents: Learning Intentionally. In: Mayorga RV, Perlovsky LI, editors. Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems, London: Springer; 2008, p. 77–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Geotechnics.

Blog post
Fang J. New Seal Virus Is Closely Related To The Human Hepatitis A Virus. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementation of the Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sundell M. From fine art to fashion: Man Ray’s ambivalent avant-garde. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Mets Thank Troops In a Meaningful Setting. New York Times 2011:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Geotechnics
ISSN (print)2214-3912
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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