How to format your references using the Journal of Interactive Marketing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interactive Marketing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gimalac, Anne (2004), “Recruiters and Industry. Building Biostatistics,” Nature, 430, 6996, 276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riddihough, Guy and Laura M. Zahn (2010), “Epigenetics. What Is Epigenetics? Introduction,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 330, 6004, 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambanis, Nicholas, Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl, and Moses Shayo (2012), “Social Psychology. Parochialism as a Central Challenge in Counterinsurgency,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 336, 6083, 805–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Erb, Karl-Heinz, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar, Anna Liza S. Bais, Nuno Carvalhais, Tamara Fetzel, Simone Gingrich, Helmut Haberl, Christian Lauk, Maria Niedertscheider, Julia Pongratz, Martin Thurner, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert (2018), “Unexpectedly Large Impact of Forest Management and Grazing on Global Vegetation Biomass,” Nature, 553, 7686, 73–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, Harry (1988), Integral Equations, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tari, Zahir (2011), On the Performance of Web Services, Ann Khoi Anh Phan, Malith Jayasinghe, and Vidura Gamini Abhaya, eds., Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Arata, Satoru, Kenji Amano, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, and Akiko Arata (2010), “Central Respiratory Failure in a Mouse Model Depends on the Genetic Background of the Host,” in New Frontiers in Respiratory Control: XIth Annual Oxford Conference on Modeling and Control of Breathing, Ikuo Homma, Hiroshi Onimaru, and Yoshinosuke Fukuchi, eds., New York, NY: Springer, 21–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interactive Marketing.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen (2015), “Japan Is Going To The Moon!,” IFLScience, IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010), “Business Systems Modernization: Scope and Content of DOD’s Congressional Report and Executive Oversight of Investments Need to Improve,” GAO-10-663, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hess, James P. (2012), “Exploring the Challenges of Training and Developing Millennials in the Business Environment,” doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin (1995), “Ghosts Of Montero, By the Sea,” New York Times, , January 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gimalac 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gimalac 2004; Riddihough and Zahn 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riddihough and Zahn 2010)
  • Three authors: (Sambanis, Schulhofer-Wohl, and Shayo 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Erb et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interactive Marketing
AbbreviationJ. Interact. Mark.
ISSN (print)1094-9968
ISSN (online)1520-6653
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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