How to format your references using the Journal of Interactive Marketing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interactive Marketing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul (2004), “Back to Life,” Nature, 429, 6990, 483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe, Timothy and Lawrence R. Frank (2011), “The Disappearing Third Dimension,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 331, 6018, 712–14.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, S., H. N. Pollack, and P. Y. Shen (2000), “Temperature Trends over the Past Five Centuries Reconstructed from Borehole Temperatures,” Nature, 403, 6771, 756–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Jian-Tao, Changfeng Chen, Enge Wang, and Yoshiyuki Kawazoe (2014), “A New Carbon Allotrope with Six-Fold Helical Chains in All-Sp2 Bonding Networks,” Scientific Reports, 4, March, 4339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boberski, Vincent (2010), Community Banking Strategies, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Heymann, Warren R., ed. (2008), Thyroid Disorders with Cutaneous Manifestations, London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Öchsner, Andreas and Marco Öchsner (2016), “Timoshenko Beams,” in The Finite Element Analysis Program MSC Marc/Mentat: A First Introduction, Marco Öchsner, ed., Singapore: Springer, 57–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interactive Marketing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015), “Pioneers Of Quantum Computing Are Among The 2015 Eureka Prize Winners,” IFLScience, IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994), “Early Childhood Programs: Parent Education and Income Best Predict Participation,” HEHS-95-47, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, Lesly Ann (2009), “Nursing Surveillance in the Acute Care Setting: Latent Variable Development and Analysis,” doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary (2010), “Scouting Report,” New York Times, , April 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Rowe and Frank 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowe and Frank 2011)
  • Three authors: (Huang, Pollack, and Shen 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interactive Marketing
AbbreviationJ. Interact. Mark.
ISSN (print)1094-9968
ISSN (online)1520-6653
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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