How to format your references using the Journal of Interactive Marketing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interactive Marketing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nabel, Gary J. (2009), “Philosophy of Science. The Coordinates of Truth,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 326, 5949, 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brookes, David and Eugenia Etkina (2010), “SPORE Series Winner. Physical Phenomena in Real Time,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 330, 6004, 605–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wake, David B., Marvalee H. Wake, and Chelsea D. Specht (2011), “Homoplasy: From Detecting Pattern to Determining Process and Mechanism of Evolution,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 331, 6020, 1032–35.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hatnean, M. Ciomaga, M. R. Lees, D. M. K. Paul, and G. Balakrishnan (2013), “Large, High Quality Single-Crystals of the New Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6,” Scientific Reports, 3, October, 3071.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grotewold, Erich, Joseph Chappell, and Elizabeth A. Kellogg (2015), Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Levy, Michael J. and Suresh T. Chari, eds. (2013), Autoimmune (IgG4-Related) Pancreatitis and Cholangitis, New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Burgos, Daniel, Colin Tattersall, and Rob Koper (2007), “Representing Adaptive and Adaptable Units of Learning,” in Computers and Education: E-Learning, From Theory to Practice, Baltasar Fernández-Manjón, Juan Manuel Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Antonio Gómez-Pulido, Miguel Angel Vega-Rodríguez, and José Bravo-Rodríguez, eds., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interactive Marketing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015), “Why We Need A Legal Definition Of Artificial Intelligence,” IFLScience, IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980), “Improving Social Security Administration Procedures for Acquiring ADP and Telecommunications Resources,” 112942, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selis, Allen Harold (2010), “Holding the Center: How One Jewish Day School Negotiates Differences in a Pluralistic Community,” doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams (2016), “No 401(k)? California Will Step In for Workers,” New York Times, , August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nabel 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Nabel 2009; Brookes and Etkina 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brookes and Etkina 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wake, Wake, and Specht 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hatnean et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interactive Marketing
AbbreviationJ. Interact. Mark.
ISSN (print)1094-9968
ISSN (online)1520-6653
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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