How to format your references using the Journal of Interactive Marketing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Interactive Marketing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartzell, H. Criss (2007), “Cell Biology. The Stress of Relaxation,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 317, 5843, 1331–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, Min and Mark Hochstrasser (2006), “Spatially Regulated Ubiquitin Ligation by an ER/Nuclear Membrane Ligase,” Nature, 443, 7113, 827–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mollicone, Danilo, Hugh D. Eva, and Frédéric Achard (2006), “Ecology: Human Role in Russian Wild Fires,” Nature, 440, 7083, 436–37.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gillooly, J. F., J. H. Brown, G. B. West, V. M. Savage, and E. L. Charnov (2001), “Effects of Size and Temperature on Metabolic Rate,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 293, 5538, 2248–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimon, Ron (2013), Enterprise Performance Management Done Right, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bolotin, Yurii (2009), Chaos: Concepts, Control and Constructive Use, Anatoli Tur and Vladimir Yanovsky, eds., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yan, Xifeng and Jiawei Han (2010), “Graph Indexing,” in Managing and Mining Graph Data, Charu C. Aggarwal and Haixun Wang, eds., Boston, MA: Springer US, 161–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Interactive Marketing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2014), “How Fast Are You Moving Through The Universe?,” IFLScience, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987), “Aviation Safety: Procedures for Registering and Certifying Air Carriers,” RCED-87-115FS, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelser, Corrie Rebecca (2010), “Interpretation of Aaron Copland’s Duo for Flute and Piano,” doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. (2013), “Beyond the Whimsy, Sushi With Ambition,” New York Times, , April 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hartzell 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hartzell 2007; Deng and Hochstrasser 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deng and Hochstrasser 2006)
  • Three authors: (Mollicone, Eva, and Achard 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gillooly et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Interactive Marketing
AbbreviationJ. Interact. Mark.
ISSN (print)1094-9968
ISSN (online)1520-6653
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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