How to format your references using the Transplantation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Humphries C. Cooking: delicious science. Nature. 2012;486:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lupulescu AI, Rimer JD. In situ imaging of silicalite-1 surface growth reveals the mechanism of crystallization. Science. 2014;344:729–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Behnia K, Balicas L, Kopelevich Y. Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth. Science. 2007;317:1729–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Abaci HE, Shen Y-I, Tan S, Gerecht S. Recapitulating physiological and pathological shear stress and oxygen to model vasculature in health and disease. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zhong Q-C, Hornik T. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Clark T, Sabharwal T, editors. Interventional Radiology Techniques in Ablation. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sironi L, Borzenkov M, Collini M, D’Alfonso L, Bouzin M, Chirico G. Interactions of Gold Nanostars with Cells. In: Borzenkov M, Pallavicini P, editors. Gold Nanostars: Synthesis, Properties and Biomedical Application. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This Futuristic 'Straddling Bus” Can Drive Itself Over Cars. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Title I Funding: Poor Children Benefit Though Funding Per Poor Child Differs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jan. Report No.: GAO-02-242.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roberson KL. Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. A Gadget to Slow-Cook, and One to Fast-Forward. New York Times. 2017 Feb 15;B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation Research
AbbreviationTransplant. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-1440

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