How to format your references using the Transplantation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McGrayne SB. Portraits of science. Damn the torpedoes. Full speed ahead! Science. 2002;296:851–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bartek J, Lukas J. Cell cycle. Order from destruction. Science. 2001;294:66–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. White LE, Coppola DM, Fitzpatrick D. The contribution of sensory experience to the maturation of orientation selectivity in ferret visual cortex. Nature. 2001;411:1049–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ma W, Alonso-González P, Li S, Nikitin AY, Yuan J, Martín-Sánchez J, et al. In-plane anisotropic and ultra-low-loss polaritons in a natural van der Waals crystal. Nature. 2018;562:557–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bell M. Incremental Software Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Yue W, Takahashi Y, Takagi H, editors. Advances in Queueing Theory and Network Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yao JT, Yao YY, Zhao Y. Foundations of Classification. In: Young Lin T, Ohsuga S, Liau C-J, Hu X, editors. Foundations and Novel Approaches in Data Mining. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 75–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation Research.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Astronomers Discovered Where A Radio Burst Is From For The First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB Needs to Improve Its Guidance on IT Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Sep. Report No.: GAO-11-826.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lynch LE. Financial regulation and economic performance: A descriptive correlation study of American financial institutions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Boom Time in Nollywood. New York Times. 2017 Oct 13;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation Research
AbbreviationTransplant. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-1440

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