How to format your references using the Transplantation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Diamandis EP. Getting noticed is half the battle. Science. 2015;349:206.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bjørnerud MG, Austrheim H. Geophysics: hot fluids or rock in eclogite metamorphism? Nature. 2006;440:E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mihalcescu I, Hsing W, Leibler S. Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria. Nature. 2004;430:81–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bechtluft P, van Leeuwen RGH, Tyreman M, Tomkiewicz D, Nouwen N, Tepper HL, et al. Direct observation of chaperone-induced changes in a protein folding pathway. Science. 2007;318:1458–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Werner M. Global Displacements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. van Dijk P, Başkent D, Gaudrain E, de Kleine E, Wagner A, Lanting C, editors. Physiology, Psychoacoustics and Cognition in Normal and Impaired Hearing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mondal PP, Diaspro A. Quantum Description of Radiation Field and Optical Microscopy. In: Diaspro A, editor. Fundamentals of Fluorescence Microscopy: Exploring Life with Light. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New Dinosaur Was Largest Known Terrestrial Predator Of The Jurassic. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Progress Continues to Be Made in Establishing Corporate Management Controls, but Further Steps Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 May. Report No.: GAO-07-733.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yackel RJ. Recruitment and retention of nurses in long -term care within the Florida Department of Veterans’ Affairs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices’ Vote in Death Case Is Close Again, but Differing. New York Times. 2007 May 15;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation Research
AbbreviationTransplant. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-1440

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