How to format your references using the Transplantation Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. King A. Astronomy. Testing the limits of accretion. Science. 2014;343:1318–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wood B, Harrison T. The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature. 2011;470:347–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wang K, Hu Y, He J. Deformation cycles of subduction earthquakes in a viscoelastic Earth. Nature. 2012;484:327–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Massey S, Yeager LA, Blumentritt CA, Vijayakumar S, Sbrana E, Peterson JW, et al. Comparative Burkholderia pseudomallei natural history virulence studies using an aerosol murine model of infection. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kharmanda G, El Hami A. Reliability in Biomechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Leal Filho W, Alves F, Caeiro S, Azeiteiro UM, editors. International Perspectives on Climate Change: Latin America and Beyond. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sköld HN, Obst M, Sköld M, Åkesson B. Stem Cells in Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. In: Rinkevich B, Matranga V, editors. Stem Cells in Marine Organisms. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 105–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Flying Saucer Test Launch Delayed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Efforts to Deal With Personnel Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Oct. Report No.: AIMD/GGD-99-14.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hart MM. R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hannibal ME. Why the Beaver Should Thank the Wolf. New York Times. 2012 Sep 29;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation Research
AbbreviationTransplant. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-1440

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