How to format your references using the Translational Neurodegeneration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Neurodegeneration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Management potential. Nature. 2005;435:123.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Li R, Wang Y. Neural mechanism for sensing fast motion in dim light. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3159.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pompilio L, Kacelnik A, Behmer ST. State-dependent learned valuation drives choice in an invertebrate. Science. 2006;311:1613–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Duan D, Liu Y, Tian F, Li D, Huang X, Zhao Z, et al. Pressure-induced metallization of dense (H₂S)₂H₂ with high-Tc superconductivity. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chin E, Nel D, Ólafsson S. Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Loue S, editor. Expressive Therapies for Sexual Issues: A Social Work Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nikodem M, Bawiec MA, Surmacz TR. Negative Difference Resistance and Its Application to Construct Boolean Logic Circuits. In: Kwiecień A, Gaj P, Stera P, editors. Computer Networks: 17th Conference, CN 2010, Ustroń, Poland, June 15-19, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Neurodegeneration.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Study Finds There Was No “Pause” In Climate Change [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit Grants: UMTA Needs to Improve Procurement Monitoring at Local Transit Authority. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: RCED-89-94.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Adams CA. Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. For a Second Time This Year, Rio Defies the Odds. New York Times. 2016 Sep 8;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Neurodegeneration
AbbreviationTransl. Neurodegener.
ISSN (online)2047-9158

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