How to format your references using the Translational Neurodegeneration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Neurodegeneration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Moskvitch K. Astronomy: To catch a cosmic ray. Nature. 2014;514:20–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hågvar S, Ohlson M. Ancient carbon from a melting glacier gives high 14C age in living pioneer invertebrates. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2820.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Moore JD, Kirk JA, Hunt T. Unmasking the S-phase-promoting potential of cyclin B1. Science. 2003;300:987–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hulot FD, Lacroix G, Lescher-Moutoué F, Loreau M. Functional diversity governs ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment. Nature. 2000;405:340–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kossiakoff A, Sweet WN. Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Grueau C, Gustavo Rocha J, editors. Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management: First International Conference, GISTAM 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 28-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Peterson MP. Elements of Multimedia Cartography. In: Cartwright W, Peterson MP, Gartner G, editors. Multimedia Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 63–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Neurodegeneration.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Icy Plains And Hydrocarbon Haze Spotted On Pluto [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Jul. Report No.: B-168707.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nguyen J. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Long-Lost Flag, Mystery of 9/11, Heads to Museum in Manhattan. New York Times. 2016 Sep 7;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Neurodegeneration
AbbreviationTransl. Neurodegener.
ISSN (online)2047-9158

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