How to format your references using the Nurse Education in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Education in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardin, L.S., 2008. Meetings that changed the world: Bellagio 1969: The green revolution. Nature 455, 470–471.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuppan, D., Hahn, E.G., 2002. Biomedicine. Gluten and the gut-lessons for immune regulation. Science 297, 2218–2220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oganov, A.R., Brodholt, J.P., Price, G.D., 2001. The elastic constants of MgSiO3 perovskite at pressures and temperatures of the Earth’s mantle. Nature 411, 934–937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, Y.-S., Mulugu, S., York, J.D., O’Shea, E.K., 2007. Regulation of a cyclin-CDK-CDK inhibitor complex by inositol pyrophosphates. Science 316, 109–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamperti, J.W., 1996. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Daniels, J.C. (Ed.), 2015. Butterfly Conservation in North America: Efforts to help save our charismatic microfauna, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, H., 2009. 2030: Alps Tourism in the Face of Climate Change, in: Conrady, R., Buck, M. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Education in Practice.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Beating Artificial Heart Tissue Announced [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Truck Transport: Little Is Known About Hauling Garbage and Food in the Same Vehicles (No. RCED-90-161). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doss, A., 2015. Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, R., 2012. The Taboo of Menstruation. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardin, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hardin, 2008; Schuppan and Hahn, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schuppan and Hahn, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Education in Practice
AbbreviationNurse Educ. Pract.
ISSN (print)1471-5953
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Nursing

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