How to format your references using the Nurse Education in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nurse Education in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christian, C.E., 2001. Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature 413, 635–639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moiseff, A., Copeland, J., 2010. Firefly synchrony: a behavioral strategy to minimize visual clutter. Science 329, 181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stone, L., Olinky, R., Huppert, A., 2007. Seasonal dynamics of recurrent epidemics. Nature 446, 533–536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langdon, E.M., Qiu, Y., Ghanbari Niaki, A., McLaughlin, G.A., Weidmann, C.A., Gerbich, T.M., Smith, J.A., Crutchley, J.M., Termini, C.M., Weeks, K.M., Myong, S., Gladfelter, A.S., 2018. mRNA structure determines specificity of a polyQ-driven phase separation. Science 360, 922–927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge, M., 2016. Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Aggarwal, C.C. (Ed.), 2009. Managing and Mining Uncertain Data, Advances in Database Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Potylitsyn, A.P., Ryazanov, M.I., Strikhanov, M.N., Tishchenko, A.A., 2011. Diffraction Radiation in the Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Regions, in: Ryazanov, M.I., Strikhanov, M.N., Tishchenko, A.A. (Eds.), Diffraction Radiation from Relativistic Particles, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nurse Education in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Amazing X-ray GIFs Show Joints In Motion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Information Technology Services: Agencies Complying with Revision to Federal Acquisition Regulation (No. GAO-03-32). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaddy, M., 2008. An empirical assessment of the crosscutting concern problem (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, B.P., 2005. Closing Time; Iskandariya. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christian, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Christian, 2001; Moiseff and Copeland, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moiseff and Copeland, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Langdon et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNurse Education in Practice
AbbreviationNurse Educ. Pract.
ISSN (print)1471-5953
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Nursing

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