How to format your references using the Translational Medicine Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Medicine Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Wood, Obituary: Alastair Cameron (1925-2005), Nature. 438 (2005) 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.R. Sprang, J.C. Elk, Cell signaling. Structural origins of receptor bias, Science. 335 (2012) 1055–1056.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. He, G.-H. Xue, J.-Z. Fu, Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6973.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-L. Zhang, Y. Zang, J. Xie, J. Li, G.-R. Chen, X.-P. He, H. Tian, A “clicked” tetrameric hydroxamic acid glycopeptidomimetic antagonizes sugar-lectin interactions on the cellular level, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Maier, Chemiker im „Dritten Reich“, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
B. Shi, B.C. Sommerlad, eds., Cleft Lip and Palate Primary Repair, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S.J. Zaccaro, E.J. Weis, T.R. Chen, M.D. Matthews, Situational Load and Personal Attributes: Implications for Cognitive Readiness, Adaptive Readiness, and Training, in: H.F. O’Neil, R.S. Perez, E.L. Baker (Eds.), Teaching and Measuring Cognitive Readiness, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2014: pp. 93–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Medicine Case Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, We Need More Than Just New Antibiotics To Fight Superbugs, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Agencies Could Benefit by Better Management of ADP Activities of Government Contractors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Zhao, Modeling, Estimation and Approximation in Structured Models, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Fixing What Ain’t Broke? That’s Ruinous, New York Times. (2017) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Medicine Case Reports
AbbreviationNew Horiz. Clin. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-9482

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