How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wurtz RH. 2013. Retrospective. David H. Hubel (1926-2013). Science. 342(6158):572
A journal article with 2 authors
Emini EA, Koff WC. 2004. AIDS/HIV. Developing an AIDS vaccine: need, uncertainty, hope. Science. 304(5679):1913–14
A journal article with 3 authors
Khalil AM, Cambier JC, Shlomchik MJ. 2012. B cell receptor signal transduction in the GC is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity. Science. 336(6085):1178–81
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Simpson SW, Quade J, Levin NE, Butler R, Dupont-Nivet G, et al. 2008. A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia. Science. 322(5904):1089–92

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rooney T. 2010. IP Address Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bailey B. 2010. ESL Models and their Application: Electronic System Level Design and Verification in Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US. XXIV, 446 p. 177 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Howie S, Plomp T. 2005. International Comparative Studies of Education and Large-Scale Change. In International Handbook of Educational Policy, ed N Bascia, A Cumming, A Datnow, K Leithwood, D Livingstone, pp. 75–99. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease.

Blog post
Hale T. 2015. Watch What Happens When You Add Dye To A Floating Ball Of Water On The ISS. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Federal Aviation Administration: Improved Tracking of Results Needed to Provide Confidence in Benefits of Streamlining Activities. GAO-15-247, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas JK. 2014. CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families. Doctoral dissertation thesis. Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. 2017. Michael Tilson Thomas To Step Down in 2020. New York Times, Oct. 31, p. C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1553-4006
ISSN (online)1553-4014
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles