How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner SA. 2001. Natural progression. Nature. 409(6819):459
A journal article with 2 authors
Gebbers R, Adamchuk VI. 2010. Precision agriculture and food security. Science. 327(5967):828–31
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis GL, Moore C, Armstrong SM. 2014. Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Sci. Rep. 4:3921
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kitamura N, Kitahara M, Shoji M, Miyoshi Y, Hasegawa H, et al. 2018. Direct measurements of two-way wave-particle energy transfer in a collisionless space plasma. Science. 361(6406):1000–1003

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard KG. 2014. Labormanagement. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
An edited book
Elfadel I (abe) M, Fettweis G, eds. 2016. 3D Stacked Chips: From Emerging Processes to Heterogeneous Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XXIII, 339 p. 238 illus., 157 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiménez-Cruz E, Arroyo-Maya IJ, Hernández-Arana A, Cornejo-Mazón M, Hernández-Sánchez H. 2015. Protein-Based Nanoparticles. In Food Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ed H Hernández-Sánchez, GF Gutiérrez-López, pp. 69–79. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2016. We Are A Step Closer To Understanding How Superconductivity Works. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments. AA-95-17(4), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amin RM. 2010. Detecting targeted malicious email through supervised classification of persistent threat and recipient oriented features. Doctoral dissertation thesis. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Green J, Soloski A. 2017. Too Soon? Or Right on Cue? New York Times, Aug. 16, p. AR1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1553-4006
ISSN (online)1553-4014
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles