How to format your references using the Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Biofuels. Nature 2011; 474:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomson M, Gunawardena J. Unlimited multistability in multisite phosphorylation systems. Nature 2009; 460:274–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai L, Friedman N, Xie XS. Stochastic protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level. Nature 2006; 440:358–62.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Garcia-Barriocanal J, Rivera-Calzada A, Varela M, Sefrioui Z, Iborra E, Leon C, Pennycook SJ, Santamaria J. Colossal ionic conductivity at interfaces of epitaxial ZrO2:Y2O3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Science 2008; 321:676–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raju KSN. Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Villalobos FJ, Fereres E, editors. Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Scozzari S, Gamberini L. Virtual Reality as a Tool for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review. In: Brahnam S, Jain LC, editors. Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare 6. Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy, Rehabilitation, and Assessment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. page 63–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translation.

Blog post
Luntz S. Vaginal Bacteria Play Crucial Role In HIV Transmission [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Safe and Drug-Free Schools: Balancing Accountability With State and Local Flexibility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grefe SE. Plasmonic and topological insulator nanostructures and metamaterials nanoscale near-field investigations: Experiment and theory. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Rain and Rest Days Spell the End Of Super Saturday. New York Times2012; :SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslation
AbbreviationTranslation (Austin)
ISSN (online)2169-0731

Other styles