How to format your references using the Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagla P. INDIA: Disease Data Stolen in Lab Break-In. Science 2000; 290:1668b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheppard SS, Trujillo CA. Detection of a trailing (L5) Neptune Trojan. Science 2010; 329:1304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knudson MD, Desjarlais MP, Dolan DH. Shock-wave exploration of the high-pressure phases of carbon. Science 2008; 322:1822–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Najib N, Bachok N, Arifin NM, Ishak A. Stagnation point flow and mass transfer with chemical reaction past a stretching/shrinking cylinder. Sci Rep 2014; 4:4178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke B, Seidenberg R, Althoff MP. UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Squires V, Hua L, Li G, Zhang D, editors. Towards Sustainable Use of Rangelands in North-West China. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujiwara H, Araki Y, Sato Y, Takakura M, Nakamura M, Mizumoto Y, Horie A, Kanzaki H, Mori T. Role of Circulating Blood Cells in Maternal Tissue Remodeling and Embryo-Maternal Cross Talk. In: Kanzaki H, editor. Uterine Endometrial Function. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. page 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translation.

Blog post
Taub B. New Treatment “Reverses” Alzheimer’s Disease. IFLScience2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on H.R. 3229 and H.R. 3240. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckheimer I. Mapping habitat quality in conservation’s neglected geography. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Unity Technologies Agrees to Funding. New York Times2017; :B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslation
AbbreviationTranslation (Austin)
ISSN (online)2169-0731

Other styles