How to format your references using the Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binney JJ. Astronomy. Triangulating the galaxy. Science 2006; 311:44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou Q, Bachtrog D. Sex-specific adaptation drives early sex chromosome evolution in Drosophila. Science 2012; 337:341–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou H, Guan H, Chi B. Record of winter monsoon strength. Nature 2007; 450:E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang Y, Jia S, Huang H, Qiu J, Zhou C. A novel algorithm for the precise calculation of the maximal information coefficient. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6662.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welsh AH. Aspects of Statistical Inference: Welsh/Aspects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
Pine KR. Clinical Ocular Prosthetics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Datta PK, Biswas S. Combination Resonance Characteristics of a Composite Plate Having Damage Subjected to in-Plane Pulsating Load. In: Náprstek J, Horáček J, Okrouhlík M, Marvalová B, Verhulst F, Sawicki JT, editors. Vibration Problems ICOVP 2011: The 10th International Conference on Vibration Problems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. page 45–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. SpaceX Just Test-Fired A New Rocket Engine That Will Launch Missions To Mars [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Projects: Status and Remaining Challenges of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amini B. Linear Matrix Inequality Method for Periodic Systems. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. One Stop for Homey or Haute. New York Times2007; :14NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslation
AbbreviationTranslation (Austin)
ISSN (online)2169-0731

Other styles