How to format your references using the Telecommunication Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Telecommunication Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz-Casares, M. (2014). Mental health: Tailor informed-consent processes. Nature, 513(7518), 304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schreiber, H., & Rowley, D. A. (2010). Cancer. Awakening immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6005), 761–762.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan, X., Liu, F., & Zhang, M. (2012). Comment on “Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6075), 1441; author reply 1441.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tranquada, J. M., Woo, H., Perring, T. G., Goka, H., Gu, G. D., Xu, G., … Yamada, K. (2004). Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors. Nature, 429(6991), 534–538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prager, F. H., & Rosteck, H. (2006). Polyurethane and Fire. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Nakamura, H. (Ed.). (2009). Electroporation and Sonoporation in Developmental Biology. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Fuangkhon, P., & Tanprasert, T. (2012). Multi-class Contour Preserving Classification. In H. Yin, J. A. F. Costa, & G. Barreto (Eds.), Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2012: 13th International Conference, Natal, Brazil, August 29-31, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 35–42). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Telecommunication Systems.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 22). Bacteria Can “Talk” To Each Other Using Electrical Signals. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Responsibilities, Actions, and Coordination of Federal Agencies in International Telecommunications Services (No. CED-77-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabone, B. (2013). Knowledge and awareness of the Female Athlete Triad among female collegiate athletes at California State University, Long Beach (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcgraw, G. (2016, October 20). Water, Water Nowhere. New York Times, p. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTelecommunication Systems
AbbreviationTelecommun. Syst.
ISSN (print)1018-4864
ISSN (online)1572-9451
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles