How to format your references using the Telecommunication Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Telecommunication Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paulson, T. (2013). Epidemiology: A mortal foe. Nature, 502(7470), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brandman, O., & Meyer, T. (2008). Feedback loops shape cellular signals in space and time. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5900), 390–395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, C., Zhong, Z., & Lieber, C. M. (2005). Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5752), 1304–1307.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van Rooij, E., Sutherland, L. B., Qi, X., Richardson, J. A., Hill, J., & Olson, E. N. (2007). Control of stress-dependent cardiac growth and gene expression by a microRNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5824), 575–579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N., Forrest, K., & Cramp, P. (2008). Essential Guide to Acute Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Acquaah, M. (Ed.). (2016). Family Businesses in Sub-Saharan Africa: Behavioral and Strategic Perspectives. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Gwathmey, F. W., & Byrd, J. W. T. (2014). Hip Pathology That Can Cause Groin Pain in Athletes: Diagnosis and Management. In D. R. Diduch & L. M. Brunt (Eds.), Sports Hernia and Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 31–54). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Telecommunication Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 31). Synthetic magnetic monopoles have been created in the lab. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Space Shuttle: Human Capital and Safety Upgrade Challenges Require Continued Attention (No. NSIAD/GGD-00-186). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford, R. R. (2012). Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Benedict, I. (1899, May 6). WELL ENOUGH AS IT IS. New York Times, p. STURDAY NEW YORK OF BOOKS AND ARTBR299.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTelecommunication Systems
AbbreviationTelecommun. Syst.
ISSN (print)1018-4864
ISSN (online)1572-9451
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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