How to format your references using the Telecommunication Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Telecommunication Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ford, J. M. (2000). In the days of the comet. Nature, 405(6789), 889.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wang, R., & Yan, X. (2014). Superior asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni-Co oxide nanosheets and carbon nanorods. Scientific reports, 4, 3712.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Li, L., Wang, H., & Zhao, X. (2014). Effects of Rhodiola on production, health and gut development of broilers reared at high altitude in Tibet. Scientific reports, 4, 7166.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
1.
Joron, M., Frezal, L., Jones, R. T., Chamberlain, N. L., Lee, S. F., Haag, C. R., … ffrench-Constant, R. H. (2011). Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry. Nature, 477(7363), 203–206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Baines, P., Ferraro, J., & Rogers, P. (2010). The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Eighteenth-Century Writers and Writing 1660 - 1789. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
1.
Watson, A., & Ohtani, M. (Eds.). (2015). Task Design In Mathematics Education: an ICMI study 22 (1st ed. 2015.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lachapelle, J.-M. (2009). The Standard Series of Patch Tests. In H. I. Maibach, J. Ring, U. Darsow, & T. Rustemeyer (Eds.), Patch Testing and Prick Testing: A Practical Guide Official Publication of the ICDRG (pp. 71–82). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Telecommunication Systems.

Blog post
1.
Andrews, R. (2016, December 21). An Italian Supervolcano May Be Showing Signs Of “Reawaking.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Computer Reservation Systems: Action Needed to Better Monitor the CRS Industry and Eliminate CRS Biases (No. RCED-92-130). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Darko-Mensah, K. (2019). Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African Countries (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse, L. (2005, October 12). Supreme Court Takes Up 2 Cases Challenging Powers of U.S. Regulators to Protect Wetlands. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTelecommunication Systems
AbbreviationTelecommun. Syst.
ISSN (print)1018-4864
ISSN (online)1572-9451
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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