How to format your references using the Telecommunication Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Telecommunication Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenfeld, D. (2006). Atmosphere. Aerosols, clouds, and climate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5778), 1323–1324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorin, D. J., & Toste, F. D. (2007). Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. Nature, 446(7134), 395–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarneni, S., Kozai, N., & Paulus, W. J. (2001). Environment. Superselective clay for radium uptake. Nature, 410(6830), 771.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arbic, B. K., Macayeal, D. R., Mitrovica, J. X., & Milne, G. A. (2004). Palaeoclimate: ocean tides and Heinrich events. Nature, 432(7016), 460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2011). Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Diagana, T. (2016). Non-Archimedean Operator Theory. (F. Ramaroson, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hofmann, E., Maucher, D., Kotula, M., & Kreienbrink, O. (2014). Supplier Evaluation and Performance Measurement on the Buyer-Supplier-Relationship Level. In D. Maucher, M. Kotula, & O. Kreienbrink (Eds.), Performance Measurement and Incentive Systems in Purchasing: More Than Just Savings (pp. 93–127). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Telecommunication Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 15). Scientists Have Managed To Probe The Icy Interior Of Ceres. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). NASA: Preliminary Observations on Major Acquisition Projects and Management Challenges (No. GAO-16-461T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Priddy, J. D.-J. (2014). As Tufa to Sapphire: Gendering the Roles of Medieval Women in Combat (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, February 4). Flores, Mets’ Lone Holdout, Wins His Arbitration Case. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTelecommunication Systems
AbbreviationTelecommun. Syst.
ISSN (print)1018-4864
ISSN (online)1572-9451
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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