How to format your references using the Telecommunication Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Telecommunication Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Green light for plans to sell off US helium reserve. Nature, 405(6786), 496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Song, T.-R. A., & Simons, M. (2003). Large trench-parallel gravity variations predict seismogenic behavior in subduction zones. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 630–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wörsdörfer, B., Woycechowsky, K. J., & Hilvert, D. (2011). Directed evolution of a protein container. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6017), 589–592.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lunzer, M., Miller, S. P., Felsheim, R., & Dean, A. M. (2005). The biochemical architecture of an ancient adaptive landscape. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 499–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sengupta, D. L., & Liepa, V. V. (2005). Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, D. K., & Sandalio, L. M. (Eds.). (2012). Metal Toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling and Remediation (First.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Savva, A. (2013). Khôra, Topos and Praxis. In J. Baldacchino & R. Vella (Eds.), Mediterranean Art and Education: Navigating Local, Regional and Global Imaginaries Through the Lens of the Arts And Learning (pp. 59–79). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Telecommunication Systems.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 16). Elephants Could Hear Rain Over Hundreds of Kilometers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Scientific Research: Continued Vigilance Critical to Protecting Human Subjects (No. HEHS-96-72). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, J. D. (2014). The Investigation of Self-Determination in Students Participating in Higher Education with an Invisible Disability (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, February 21). Judge Selection To Be Reviewed By U.S. Justices. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTelecommunication Systems
AbbreviationTelecommun. Syst.
ISSN (print)1018-4864
ISSN (online)1572-9451
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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