How to format your references using the Transcription citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transcription. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laxminarayan R. Antibiotic effectiveness: balancing conservation against innovation. Science 2014; 345:1299–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bayon R, Jenkins M. The business of biodiversity. Nature 2010; 466:184–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yue H, Lay T, Koper KD. En échelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes. Nature 2012; 490:245–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chakrabarty D, Morgan EH, Muno MP, Galloway DK, Wijnands R, Van Der Klis M, Markwardt CB. Nuclear-powered millisecond pulsars and the maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. Nature 2003; 424:42–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mathian H, Sanders L. Spatio-Temporal Approaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Kim T-H, Mohammed S, Ramos C, Abawajy J, Kang B-H, Ślęzak D, editors. Computer Applications for Web, Human Computer Interaction, Signal and Image Processing, and Pattern Recognition: International Conferences, SIP, WSE, and ICHCI 2012, Held in Conjunction with GST 2012, Jeju Island, Korea, November 28-December 2, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Leal Filho W, Kovaleva M. Methods of Food Waste Reduction. In: Kovaleva M, editor. Food Waste and Sustainable Food Waste Management in the Baltic Sea Region. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 51–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transcription.

Blog post
Fang J. Extinct Animal Found Alive and Well in New Zealand [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reorganization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbin-Staton AP. Contexts of parental involvement: An interpretive synthesis of qualitative literature using the meta-interpretation method. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. When Just Being Alive Was Beyond Belief. New York Times2013; :E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranscription
ISSN (print)2154-1264
ISSN (online)2154-1272

Other styles