How to format your references using the Transcription citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transcription. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Clouded vision. Nature 2003; 422:356–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Immunology. The shape of things to come. Science 2007; 316:1574–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maeda H, Norum DVL, Gallagher TF. Microwave manipulation of an atomic electron in a classical orbit. Science 2005; 307:1757–60.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Dubonos SV, Hill EW, Grigorieva IV. Subatomic movements of a domain wall in the Peierls potential. Nature 2003; 426:812–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones RB. 20% Chance of Rain. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Öchsner A. One-Dimensional Finite Elements: An Introduction to the FE Method. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Colin J-N, Tien HM. Securing a Loosely-Coupled Web-Based eLearning Ecosystem Combining Open Standards. In: Monfort V, Krempels K-H, editors. Web Information Systems and Technologies: 10th International Conference, WEBIST 2014, Barcelona, Spain, April 3-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 48–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transcription.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Humans Have Now Been Living In Space For 15 Years On The International Space Station [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Training Partnership Act: Participants, Services, and Outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh W. Elderly Vietnamese’ perceptions of the effects of Adult Day Health Care services on their mental and physical well-being. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Cracks Starting to Appear in Public Pensions’ Armor. New York Times2015; :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranscription
ISSN (print)2154-1264
ISSN (online)2154-1272

Other styles