How to format your references using the Transcription citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transcription. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. Archaeology. Does North America hold the roots of Mesoamerican civilization? Science 2011; 334:1620–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
VijayRaghavan K, Bate M. Retrospective. Veronica Rodrigues (1953-2010). Science 2010; 330:1493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma H, Sun H, Sun X. Survival improvement by decade of patients aged 0-14 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a SEER analysis. Sci Rep 2014; 4:4227.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Roche J, Carrara S, Sanchez J, Lannelongue J, Loget G, Bouffier L, Fischer P, Kuhn A. Wireless powering of e-swimmers. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulinkovich OG. Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Topaz O, editor. Lasers in Cardiovascular Interventions. 1st ed. 2015. London: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo C, Liu Y, Zhang M, Ma S. Query Ambiguity Identification Based on User Behavior Information. In: Jaafar A, Mohamad Ali N, Mohd Noah SA, Smeaton AF, Bruza P, Bakar ZA, Jamil N, Sembok TMT, editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 10th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2014, Kuching, Malaysia, December 3-5, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. page 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transcription.

Blog post
Luntz S. Sleepless Mice Have Memory Protected. IFLScience2014;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Force Technology Development Underway Throughout the Aerospace Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belcher JT. Optimism, psychological well-being, and quality of life in females with Fibromyalgia Syndrome. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. For HBO, Storm Clouds Gather Over What Should Be a Smashing Summer. New York Times2017; :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranscription
ISSN (print)2154-1264
ISSN (online)2154-1272

Other styles