How to format your references using the Transcription citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transcription. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacDonald HR. Immunology. T before NK. Science 2002; 296:481–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Welsh RM, Selin LK. Attrition of memory CD8 T cells. Nature 2009; 459:E3-4; discussion E4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yao M-C, Fuller P, Xi X. Programmed DNA deletion as an RNA-guided system of genome defense. Science 2003; 300:1581–4.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mollner AK, Valluvadasan S, Feng L, Sprague MK, Okumura M, Milligan DB, Bloss WJ, Sander SP, Martien PT, Harley RA, et al. Rate of gas phase association of hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide. Science 2010; 330:646–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benmammar B, Amraoui A. Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Bru R, Romero-Vivó S, editors. Positive Systems: Proceedings of the third Multidisciplinary International Symposium on Positive Systems: Theory and Applications (POSTA 2009) Valencia, Spain, September 2-4, 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Mpakopoulou M, Brotis AG, Gatos H, Paterakis K, Fountas KN. Ten Years of Clinical Experience in the Use of Fixed-Pressure Versus Programmable Valves: A Retrospective Study of 159 Patients. In: Aygok GA, Rekate HL, editors. Hydrocephalus: Selected Papers from the International Workshop in Crete, 2010. Vienna: Springer; 2012. page 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transcription.

Blog post
Hale T. A Walrus Has Been Born In A Canadian Aquarium For The First Time. IFLScience2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Information on Expenditures, Schedule, and Cost Estimates, Fiscal Years 2004 -- 2030. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer K. Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pfaff J. The Justices Need Fact-Checkers. New York Times2017; :A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTranscription
ISSN (print)2154-1264
ISSN (online)2154-1272

Other styles