How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawrence PA. Last hideout of the unknown? Nature. 2004;429(6989):247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katz A, Davis ME. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica. Nature. 2000;403(6767):286-289.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winter Y, López J, Von Helversen O. Ultraviolet vision in a bat. Nature. 2003;425(6958):612-614.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Takamoto DY, Aydil E, Zasadzinski JA, et al. Stable ordering in Langmuir-Blodgett films. Science. 2001;293(5533):1292-1295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gabler J. Sociology for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Koch F, Guttmann C, Busquets D, eds. Advances in Social Computing and Multiagent Systems: 6th International Workshop on Collaborative Agents Research and Development, CARE 2015 and Second International Workshop on Multiagent Foundations of Social Computing, MFSC 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, May 4, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 541. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanna A, Monni G. Recovery and Reuse of the Architectural and Urban Heritage of Carbonia, a 20th-Century Company Town. Materials for a Handbook. In: Toniolo L, Boriani M, Guidi G, eds. Built Heritage: Monitoring Conservation Management. Research for Development. Springer International Publishing; 2015:55-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce H. Mysterious 15 Meter Sea Creature Found In Indonesia. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisitions: No Improper Actions Found on IRS’ Contract for Data Retrieval System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simone PS. A Mixed Methods Study of Culturally Proficient Practices in an Elementary School. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. A Climate Change Evangelist. New York Times. October 11, 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationAsian J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1015-9584

Other styles