How to format your references using the Asian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DiVincenzo DP. Physics. Toward control of large-scale quantum computing. Science. 2011;334(6052):50-51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gubin MM, Schreiber RD. CANCER. The odds of immunotherapy success. Science. 2015;350(6257):158-159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowe SW, Cepero E, Evan G. Intrinsic tumour suppression. Nature. 2004;432(7015):307-315.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wawersik M, Milutinovich A, Casper AL, Matunis E, Williams B, Van Doren M. Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway. Nature. 2005;436(7050):563-567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinhardt HW. Ingenieurbaustoffe. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2010.
An edited book
Hilty JA, Chester CC, Cross MS, eds. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Cate IPT, Krolak-Schwerdt S, Glock S, Markova M. Improving Teachers’ Judgments. In: Krolak-Schwerdt S, Glock S, Böhmer M, eds. Teachers’ Professional Development: Assessment, Training, and Learning. SensePublishers; 2014:45-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Carpineti A. SpaceX Rocket Explosion Mystery Deepens With Sabotage Speculation. IFLScience. Published October 3, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Undercover Testing Finds Fraud and Abuse at Selected Head Start Centers. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skinner R. Artistiya: Popular Music and Personhood in Postcolonial Bamako, Mali. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Syndergaard Stumbles en Route to a Potential Wild-Card Start. New York Times. September 20, 2016:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationAsian J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1015-9584

Other styles