How to format your references using the Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneier B (2001) Protecting privacy and liberty. Nature 413:773
A journal article with 2 authors
Higuchi T, Uhlmann F (2005) Stabilization of microtubule dynamics at anaphase onset promotes chromosome segregation. Nature 433:171–176
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Y, Chen G, Zhang C (2013) Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci Rep 3:1937
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hepting M, Chaix L, Huang EW, et al (2018) Three-dimensional collective charge excitations in electron-doped copper oxide superconductors. Nature 563:374–378

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nellist JG (2005) Understanding Telecommunications and Lightwave Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Papantonopoulos E (ed) (2009) Physics of Black Holes: A Guided Tour. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kezunovic M, Ren J, Lotfifard S (2016) Design and Implementation of Relay Communication Schemes and Trip Logic. In: Ren J, Lotfifard S (eds) Design, Modeling and Evaluation of Protective Relays for Power Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 171–188

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) How Squid Manipulate Light to Tune Their Own Iridescence. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Information Security and Privacy Controls. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whidby MA (2012) Citation handling: Processing citation texts in scientific documents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L, Neroulias N (2009) School Districts Gird For Bad-News Budgets. New York Times LI1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schneier 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schneier 2001; Higuchi and Uhlmann 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Higuchi and Uhlmann 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hepting et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleNetwork Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics
AbbreviationNetw. Model. Anal. Health Inform. Bioinform.
ISSN (print)2192-6662
ISSN (online)2192-6670

Other styles