How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Philological Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Philological Association (TAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunbar, R. 2003. “Psychology. Evolution of the Social Brain.” Science 302 (5648) (November 14): 1160–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, W.-P., and Yang, Z. 2004. “Earthquakes beneath the Himalayas and Tibet: Evidence for Strong Lithospheric Mantle.” Science 304 (5679) (June 25): 1949–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic, J., Coontz, R., and Osborne, I. 2011. “Superconductivity. Happy 100th, Superconductivity! Introduction.” Science 332 (6026) (April 8): 189.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lu, W., Ridgwell, A., Thomas, E., Hardisty, D.S., Luo, G., Algeo, T.J., Saltzman, M.R., et al. 2018. “Late Inception of a Resiliently Oxygenated Upper Ocean.” Science 361 (6398) (July 13): 174–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach, D. 1996. The Responsible Conduct of Research. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bilheux, H.Z., McGreevy, R., and Anderson, I.S., ed. 2009. Neutron Imaging and Applications: A Reference for the Imaging Community. Neutron Scattering Applications and Techniques. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Tcholtchev, N., and Schieferdecker, I. 2014. “Framework for Ensuring Runtime Stability of Control Loops in Multi-Agent Networked Environments.” In Gavrilova, M.L. and Tan, C.J.K. eds. Transactions on Computational Science XXII. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 64–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Philological Association.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “The Pope As Messenger: Making Climate Change A Moral Issue.” IFLScience. IFLScience. April 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. “Review of Estimate in Prime Contract N00019-71-C-0450 With Grumman Aerospace Corporation.” 093132. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams, J. 2015. “Road to Success: The Experiences of Academically Successful Graduation-Bound African American Males.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017. “New Routine Becomes an Exercise in Bonding: Stretch, Share, Hug.” New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Philological Association
ISSN (print)0360-5949
ISSN (online)1533-0699
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

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