How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Philological Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Philological Association (TAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patterson, P.H. 2007. “Neuroscience. Maternal Effects on Schizophrenia Risk.” Science 318 (5850) (October 26): 576–77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewis, A., and Tomlinson, I. 2012. “Cancer. The Utility of Mouse Models in Post-GWAS Research.” Science 338 (6112) (December 7): 1301–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hamilton, M.J., Walker, R.S., and Kesler, D.C. 2014. “Crash and Rebound of Indigenous Populations in Lowland South America.” Sci. Rep. 4 (April 1): 4541.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, X., Sun, X., Yang, W., Yang, B., Zhao, X., Chen, S., He, L., et al. 2018. “An Autoimmune Disease Variant of IgG1 Modulates B Cell Activation and Differentiation.” Science 362 (6415) (November 9): 700–705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni, L., and Perdomo, I. 2013. Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Anke, T., and Weber, D., ed. 2009. Physiology and Genetics: Selected Basic and Applied Aspects. Vol. 15. The Mycota, A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bloom, J.D. 2014. “Subsidizing Sustainability: The Role of the State and Civil Society in Implementing Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Sourcing Program.” In Cahoy, D.R. and Colburn, J.E. eds. Law and the Transition to Business Sustainability. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 57–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Philological Association.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. “New Species of Monkey Discovered In Amazon Rainforest.” IFLScience. IFLScience. March 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. “Airline Competition: Strategies for Addressing Financial and Competitive Problems in the Airline Industry.” T-RCED-93-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan, T.J. 2017. “Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez, L. 2005. “Fellow Republicans, Open Your Doors.” New York Times, November 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Philological Association
ISSN (print)0360-5949
ISSN (online)1533-0699
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

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