How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Philological Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Philological Association (TAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strano, M.S. 2012. “Chemistry. Functional DNA Origami Devices.” Science 338 (6109) (November 16): 890–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knapp, S., and Mallet, J. 2003. “Ecology. Refuting Refugia?” Science 300 (5616) (April 4): 71–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Z.-X., Ji, Q., and Yuan, C.-X. 2007. “Convergent Dental Adaptations in Pseudo-Tribosphenic and Tribosphenic Mammals.” Nature 450 (7166) (November 1): 93–97.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gao, R., Cui, Y., Liu, X., and Wang, L. 2014. “Multifunctional Interface Modification of Energy Relay Dye in Quasi-Solid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.” Sci. Rep. 4 (July 4): 5570.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsujimura, T. 2017. OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leuchtag, H.R., ed. 2008. Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels: Biophysics of Molecular Excitability. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Adeyanju, I., Wiratunga, N., Lothian, R., and Craw, S. 2010. “Applying Machine Translation Evaluation Techniques to Textual CBR.” In Bichindaritz, I. and Montani, S. eds. Case-Based Reasoning. Research and Development: 18th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2010, Alessandria, Italy, July 19-22, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 21–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Philological Association.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016. “Amateur Astronomer Reveals Star Spots On Pulsar’s Companion.” IFLScience. IFLScience. December 8.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. “School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools.” HEHS-95-61. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edmonds, J.L. 2009. “Mobility and Population Change in Northeast Mississippi: An Object-Based Seriation of Projectile Points as a Relative Paleodemographic Indicator.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. 2017. “James Staley’s Series of Unfortunate Events.” New York Times, August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Philological Association
ISSN (print)0360-5949
ISSN (online)1533-0699
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

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