How to format your references using the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sibley CH. 2015. Infectious diseases. Understanding artemisinin resistance. Science. 347(6220):373–74
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratcliff WC, Denison RF. 2011. Microbiology. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science. 332(6029):547–48
A journal article with 3 authors
Lukens JM, Leaird DE, Weiner AM. 2013. A temporal cloak at telecommunication data rate. Nature. 498(7453):205–8
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Du Y, Xin L, Shi Y, Zhang T-H, Wu NC, et al. 2018. Genome-wide identification of interferon-sensitive mutations enables influenza vaccine design. Science. 359(6373):290–96

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gavin H, Porter T. 2014. Female Aggression. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Dewsbury G, Dobson J, eds. 2007. Responsibility and Dependable Systems. London: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Kalinina O, Thumm U, Lewandowski I. 2016. Miscanthus-Complemented Grassland in Europe: Additional Source of Biomass for Bioenergy. In Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World, eds. S Barth, D Murphy-Bokern, O Kalinina, G Taylor, M Jones, pp. 51–63. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. Japan May Offer America Free Maglev Train Technology. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. General Government Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. AA-97-28(1), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler BK. 2013. Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Palmer E, Otis J. 2016. 4 Years After Hurricane Sandy, 2 Households Still Wait to Return Home. New York Times, Nov. 19, , p. A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sibley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ratcliff & Denison 2011; Sibley 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ratcliff & Denison 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Du et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Fluid Mechanics
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
ISSN (print)0066-4189
ISSN (online)1545-4479
ScopeCondensed Matter Physics

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