How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance A. Health impact: Breathless. Nature. 2012;489(7417):S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes I, Silk J. Neutrino spectroscopy can probe the dark matter content in the Sun. Science. 2010;330(6003):462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström A, Pärt T, Sheldon BC. Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort. Nature. 2000;405(6784):344–347.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
Qiao JW, Zhang T, Yang FQ, Liaw PK, Pauly S, Xu BS. A tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu J. Way of the Trade. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Motta C, Saez M eds. Gender and Sexuality in Latin America - Cases and Decisions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Pilon-Smits EAH. Selenium in Plants. In: Lüttge U, Beyschlag W, eds. Progress in Botany: Vol. 76. Progress in Botany. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. GIF Shows The Inside Of The Entire Human Body, From Top To Bottom. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Battlefield Automation: Oversight Needed to Assure Integrated System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros TR. A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Ghosts of Elections Past. New York Times. November 3, 2016:C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dance 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dance 2012; Lopes and Silk 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lopes and Silk 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles