How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bickford D. Animal behavior: male parenting of New Guinea froglets. Nature. 2002;418(6898):601–602.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nandagopal N, Elowitz MB. Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits. Science. 2011;333(6047):1244–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brun T, Devetak I, Hsieh M-H. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement. Science. 2006;314(5798):436–439.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
Blaauwgeers R, Eltsov VB, Krusius M, Ruohio JJ, Schanen R, Volovik GE. Double-quantum vortex in superfluid 3He-A. Nature. 2000;404(6777):471–473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochberg Z. Evo-Devo of Child Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Aapro M. Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients. (Jordan K, Feyer P, eds.). Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Quesada-Moraga E, Herrero N, Zabalgogeazcoa Í. Entomopathogenic and Nematophagous Fungal Endophytes. In: Verma VC, Gange AC, eds. Advances in Endophytic Research. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014:85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrews R. Does Torture Actually Work? IFLScience. 2017. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Four South Carolina Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman DS. “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Man in the News; A Master of the Image: David Richmond Gergen. New York Times. May 30, 1993:122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bickford 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bickford 2002; Nandagopal and Elowitz 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nandagopal and Elowitz 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Blaauwgeers et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles