How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingras MJP. Physics. Observing monopoles in a magnetic analog of ice. Science. 2009;326(5951):375–376.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toyoshima C, Mizutani T. Crystal structure of the calcium pump with a bound ATP analogue. Nature. 2004;430(6999):529–535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hilgenkamp H, Moshchalkov VV, Kes P. Physics. Flux quanta on the move. Science. 2003;302(5648):1159–1160.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
Cohen GL, Garcia J, Apfel N, Master A. Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention. Science. 2006;313(5791):1307–1310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sadr A. Interest Rate Swaps and Their Derivatives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Zhou J. Mercury Emission and its Control in Chinese Coal-Fired Power Plants. (Luo Z, Zhu Y, Fang M, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Agrawal A, Gopal K. Challenges of Fish Diversity in Polluted Water. In: Gopal K, ed. Biomonitoring of Water and Waste Water. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013:49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew D. The Real Reason Clowns Scare Us. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies’ Actions To Implement Section 11 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adler AD. Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isbister M. The Joy of Making Things. New York Times. September 18, 2011:BU10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingras 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gingras 2009; Toyoshima and Mizutani 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toyoshima and Mizutani 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles