How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Where are all the students? Nature. 2002;420(6913):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitas VI, Attariani H. Anisotropic compositional expansion and chemical potential for amorphous lithiated silicon under stress tensor. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1615.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wada-Katsumata A, Silverman J, Schal C. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches. Science. 2013;340(6135):972–975.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
Dolev M, Heiblum M, Umansky V, Stern A, Mahalu D. Observation of a quarter of an electron charge at the nu = 5/2 quantum Hall state. Nature. 2008;452(7189):829–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nemethy L. Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Setchi R, Jordanov I, Howlett RJ, Jain LC eds. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 14th International Conference, KES 2010, Cardiff, UK, September 8-10, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Sym SD. Basal Lineages of Green Algae – Their Diversity and Phylogeny. In: Ohtsuka S, Suzaki T, Horiguchi T, Suzuki N, Not F, eds. Marine Protists: Diversity and Dynamics. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015:89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew D. Check Out This Gorilla’s Reaction To Seeing Other Gorillas On A Smartphone. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Recovery Act: States’ Use of Highway Infrastructure Funds and Compliance with the Act’s Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton DS. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. An Industry Fractured. New York Times. August 26, 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Levitas and Attariani 2013; Smaglik 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levitas and Attariani 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dolev et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles