How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Central stations. Nature. 2005;433(7024):439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wohlers A, Wood BJ. A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd. Nature. 2015;520(7547):337–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, O’Brien SJ. Genomics. Mmu 16--comparative genomic highlights. Science. 2002;296(5573):1617–1618.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
La Rocca M, Creager KC, Galluzzo D, Malone S, Vidale JE, Sweet JR, Wech AG. Cascadia tremor located near plate interface constrained by S minus P wave times. Science. 2009;323(5914):620–623.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown H, Prescott R. Applied Mixed Models in Medicine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bristow J, McDonagh J eds. Nineteenth-Century Radical Traditions. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zou B, Zhou G, Zhu Q. Negation and Speculation Target Identification. In: Zong C, Nie J-Y, Zhao D, Feng Y, eds. Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Third CCF Conference, NLPCC 2014, Shenzhen, China, December 5-9, 2014. Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014:34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. Temporary Tattoo Monitors Blood Glucose Levels. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airspace Use: FAA Needs to Improve Its Management of Special Use Airspace. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang Y. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR. Your Car Is Keeping Tabs on You. So Who’s It Tattling To? New York Times. July 27, 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Wohlers and Wood 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wohlers and Wood 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (La Rocca et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles