How to format your references using the Traffic Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMahon RJ. Chemistry. Chemical reactions involving quantum tunneling. Science. 2003;299(5608):833–834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silberzahn R, Uhlmann EL. Crowdsourced research: Many hands make tight work. Nature. 2015;526(7572):189–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu S-M, Chen W, Wang J. Distinguishing between cancer cell differentiation and resistance induced by all-trans retinoic acid using transcriptional profiles and functional pathway analysis. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5577.
A journal article with 19 or more authors
Huo N, Yang S, Wei Z, Li S-S, Xia J-B, Li J. Photoresponsive and gas sensing field-effect transistors based on multilayer WS₂ nanoflakes. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beagle JR. Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Tonsberg TA. Understanding Leadership in Complex Systems: A Praxeological Perspective. (Henderson JS, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartelmann M, Bennett CL, Bucher M, Burigana C, Capaccioli M, D’Onofrio M, Durrer R, Gioia I, Hasinger G, Lawrence C, Longo G, Macias-Perez JF, Madau P, Mather J, Peacock J, Popa LA, Rebolo R, Reich W, et al. Next Challenges. In: D’Onofrio M, Burigana C, eds. Questions of Modern Cosmology: Galileo’s Legacy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:429–501.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mauna a Wakea: Hawai’i’s Sacred Mountain And The Contentious Thirty Meter Telescope. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell JR. Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. From Misfit With Blog To Author With Deal. New York Times. May 6, 2012:A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McMahon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (McMahon 2003; Silberzahn and Uhlmann 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Silberzahn and Uhlmann 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Huo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic Injury Prevention
AbbreviationTraffic Inj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1538-9588
ISSN (online)1538-957X
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles