How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
WODARZ, D. 2001. Mechanisms underlying antigen-specific CD8+ T cell homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292:595.
A journal article with 2 authors
MUOIO, D. M. & NEWGARD, C. B. 2004. Biomedicine. Insulin resistance takes a trip through the ER. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:425–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
DURNIAK, K. J., BAILEY, S. & STEITZ, T. A. 2008. The structure of a transcribing T7 RNA polymerase in transition from initiation to elongation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322:553–557.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
TIAN, F., TOON, O. B., PAVLOV, A. A. & DE STERCK, H. 2005. A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308:1014–1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
POPESCU, D., GHARBI, A., STEFANOIU, D. & BORNE, P. 2017. Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
SINGH, M. (Ed.). 2016. Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 20th Annual Conference, RECOMB 2016, Santa Monica, CA, USA, April 17-21, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham. XXXIV, 274 p. 64 illus., 41 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
TUNIZ, C. & TIBERI VIPRAIO, P. 2016. The Quest for Fire. Pp. 29–36 in Tiberi Vipraio, P. (ed.). Humans: An Unauthorized Biography. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
DAVIS, J. 2015, June 25. Scientists Develop Self-Healing Airplane Wing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1989. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Student Default Rates at 7,800 Postsecondary Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LU, Y.-C. 2009. From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, C. 1999, March 7. The Sailors Of Winter: In the Cold, Cold Sea. New York Times:812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wodarz 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wodarz 2001, Muoio & Newgard 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muoio & Newgard 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Tian et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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