How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
PARISI, G. 2005. Brownian motion. Nature 433:221.
A journal article with 2 authors
CAHOON, L. A. & SEIFERT, H. S. 2009. An alternative DNA structure is necessary for pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325:764–767.
A journal article with 3 authors
GRENIER, I. A., CASANDJIAN, J.-M. & TERRIER, R. 2005. Unveiling extensive clouds of dark gas in the solar neighborhood. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307:1292–1295.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
XIE, S.-Y., GAO, F., LU, X., HUANG, R.-B., WANG, C.-R., ZHANG, X., LIU, M.-L., DENG, S.-L. & ZHENG, L.-S. 2004. Capturing the labile fullerene[50] as C50Cl10. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304:699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CLEAVER, H., CAWSON, P., GORIN, S. & WALKER, S. 2009. Safeguarding Children. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
MRAK, M., GRGIC, M. & KUNT, M. (Eds.). 2010. High-Quality Visual Experience: Creation, Processing and Interactivity of High-Resolution and High-Dimensional Video Signals. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. X, 550 p. 164 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
DOSHI, A. B., LIU, J. H. K. & WEINREB, R. N. 2010. Glaucoma is a 24/7 Disease. Pp. 55–57 in Schacknow, P. N. & Samples, J. R. (eds.). The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
DAVIS, J. 2016, September 6. Vitamin D Supplements May Help Reduce The Risk Of Severe Asthma Attacks. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1980. Update on Federal Matching and Maintenance of Effort Requirements for California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
RAY, R. T. 2015. Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
WHITESIDE, K. 2017, August 29. In Family’s Footsteps, Minor Takes Big Stage. New York Times:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parisi 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Parisi 2005, Cahoon & Seifert 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cahoon & Seifert 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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