How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
KARGEL, J. S. 2004. Planetary science. Proof for water, hints of life? Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:1689–1691.
A journal article with 2 authors
MAKINO, S. & SUZUKI, M. 2001. Bacterial genomic reorganization upon DNA replication. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292:803.
A journal article with 3 authors
HU, H., GAN, J. & JONAS, P. 2014. Interneurons. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin+ GABAergic interneurons: from cellular design to microcircuit function. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345:1255263.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
PHAM, N. H., OHYA, S., TANAKA, M., BARNES, S. E. & MAEKAWA, S. 2009. Electromotive force and huge magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions. Nature 458:489–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
ZADORA, G., MARTYNA, A., RAMOS, D. & AITKEN, C. 2013. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
RUGGERI, S. (Ed.). 2013. Transnational Inquiries and the Protection of Fundamental Rights in Criminal Proceedings: A Study in Memory of Vittorio Grevi and Giovanni Tranchina. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XIV, 573 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
WEI, Z. & POLOZOVA, A. 2013. Biophysical Techniques for Protein Size Distribution Analysis. Pp. 83–97 in Narhi, L. O. (ed.). Biophysics for Therapeutic Protein Development. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
O`CALLAGHAN, J. 2015, September 29. NASA Paid This Guy $18,000 To Lie In A Bed For 70 Days. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2009. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
EMMERLING-BAKER, D. 2017. A Qualitative Interpretive Phenomenological Study of K5 Teacher Perceptions of Classroom Empathy Instruction. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KELLY, S. R. 2012, November 27. Good Neighbors, Bad Border. New York Times:A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kargel 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Makino & Suzuki 2001, Kargel 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Makino & Suzuki 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pham et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles