How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
CHECK, E. 2003. US debates future of Iraqi scientists. Nature 422:789.
A journal article with 2 authors
HERZBERG, C. & GAZEL, E. 2009. Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes. Nature 458:619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
LE GALLIARD, J.-F., CLOBERT, J. & FERRIÈRE, R. 2004. Physical performance and Darwinian fitness in lizards. Nature 432:502–505.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
SFEIR, M. Y., WANG, F., HUANG, L., CHUANG, C.-C., HONE, J., O’BRIEN, S. P., HEINZ, T. F. & BRUS, L. E. 2004. Probing electronic transitions in individual carbon nanotubes by Rayleigh scattering. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:1540–1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
COLIN, A. 2005. Fixed Income Attribution. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
GROTE, U., BASU, A. K. & CHAU, N. H. (Eds.). 2007. New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg. VIII, 241 p. 18 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
FAN, W., SHI, J. & BU, W. 2016. Engineering Upconversion Nanoparticles for Multimodal Biomedical Imaging-Guided Therapeutic Applications. Pp. 165–195 in Dai, Z. (ed.). Advances in Nanotheranostics I: Design and Fabrication of Theranosic Nanoparticles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. 2015, March 13. Pumping CO2 Underground Can Help Fight Climate Change. Why Is It Stuck In Second Gear? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2016. Aviation Security: Airport Perimeter and Access Control Security Would Benefit from Risk Assessment and Strategy Updates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
FENGLER, K. 2017. Everyday Aesthetics and the Environmental Significance of Everyday Aesthetics: A High School Art Unit of Instruction Promoting Positive Attitudinal Changes towards the Environment. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
VICTOR, D. 2017, April 25. Dehydration Death at Jail Is Scrutinized. New York Times:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2003, Herzberg & Gazel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herzberg & Gazel 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sfeir et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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