How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
KIRSCHNER, M. W. 2006. Obituary: Reinhart Heinrich (1946-2006). Nature 444:700.
A journal article with 2 authors
WU, L. & HICKSON, I. D. 2003. The Bloom’s syndrome helicase suppresses crossing over during homologous recombination. Nature 426:870–874.
A journal article with 3 authors
WANG, K., MITTLER, J. E. & SAMUDRALA, R. 2006. Comment on ‘Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:848; author reply 848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
PICHLMAIR, A., SCHULZ, O., TAN, C. P., NÄSLUND, T. I., LILJESTRÖM, P., WEBER, F. & REIS E SOUSA, C. 2006. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5’-phosphates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314:997–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
JARRY, P. & BENEAT, J. N. 2016. Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
HAMELRYCK, T., MARDIA, K. & FERKINGHOFF-BORG, J. (Eds.). 2012. Bayesian Methods in Structural Bioinformatics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XXII, 386 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
CALABRETTO, S. 2011. Ontology Alignment in the Urban Domain. Pp. 55–68 in Métral, C., Teller, J. & Tweed, C. (eds.). Ontologies in Urban Development Projects. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
HALE, T. 2016, July 4. Watch The Very Dangerous Ordeal Of A Sloth Pooping. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 1997. Federal-Aid Highway Program: Impact of the District of Columbia Emergency Highway Relief Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LAMA, N. 2017. Optimized Veterinary Thermographic Image Classification using Support Vector Machines and Noise Mitigation. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
PILON, M. 2012, March 28. Symbols for Satire. New York Times:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirschner 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wu & Hickson 2003, Kirschner 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu & Hickson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Pichlmair et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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