How to format your references using the African Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
BOEBINGER, G. S. 2009. Physics. An abnormal normal state. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323:590–591.
A journal article with 2 authors
ROTHENBERG, K. H. & TERRY, S. F. 2002. Human genetics. Before it’s too late--addressing fear of genetic information. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297:196–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
MORRIS, R. J., LEWIS, O. T. & GODFRAY, H. C. J. 2004. Experimental evidence for apparent competition in a tropical forest food web. Nature 428:310–313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DELAMARRE, L., PACK, M., CHANG, H., MELLMAN, I. & TROMBETTA, E. S. 2005. Differential lysosomal proteolysis in antigen-presenting cells determines antigen fate. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307:1630–1634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
BIRLA, R. 2014. Introduction to Tissue Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
KYRALA, G. A. (Ed.). 2005. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. VIII, 402 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
SCHRAUTZER, J., RINKER, A., JENSEN, K., MΫLLER, F., SCHWARTZE, P. & DIERSSEN, K. 2007. Succession and Restoration of Drained Fens: Perspectives from Northwestern Europe. Pp. 90–120 in Walker, L. R., Walker, J. & Hobbs, R. J. (eds.). Linking Restoration and Ecological Succession. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Zoology.

Blog post
FANG, J. 2015, March 10. Climate Warming is Turning Mummies into Black Ooze. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE. 2014. Small Business Research Programs: Agencies Did Not Consistently Comply with Spending and Reporting Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
VILLA, J. 2017. Multicultural Training for Mental Health Professionals Working in the Juvenile Justice System. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
HARTMAN, S. 2015, May 15. Love, Redeployed. New York Times:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boebinger 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Rothenberg & Terry 2002, Boebinger 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rothenberg & Terry 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Delamarre et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Zoology
AbbreviationAfr. Zool.
ISSN (print)1562-7020
ISSN (online)2224-073X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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